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Exploring the relationship between fear of positive evaluation and social anxiety medications not to mix purchase atomoxetine 40 mg overnight delivery. Psychometric evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in patients with social anxiety disorder treatment molluscum contagiosum discount 25mg atomoxetine otc. Assessing emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder: the emotion regulation interview medications for fibromyalgia purchase atomoxetine 25 mg without prescription. Attentional biases for facial expressions in social phobia: the face-in-the-crowd paradigm medications requiring central line safe atomoxetine 18 mg. If a drug changes your perception, or the way you feel or think, the drug exerts effects on your brain and nervous system. We call drugs that change the way you think or feel psychoactive or psychotropic drugs, and almost everyone has used a psychoactive drug at some point (yes, caffeine counts). Understanding some of the basics about psychopharmacology can help us better understand a wide range of things that interest psychologists and others. For example, the pharmacological treatment of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease tells us something about the disease itself. The pharmacological treatments used to treat psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia or depression have undergone amazing development since the 1950s, and the drugs used to treat these disorders tell us something about what is happening in the brain of individuals with these conditions. Finally, understanding something about the actions of drugs of abuse and their routes of administration can help us understand why some psychoactive drugs are so addictive. In this module, we will provide an overview of some of these topics as well as discuss some current controversial areas in the field of psychopharmacology. Learning Objectives • How do the majority of psychoactive drugs work in the brain Psychopharmacology 1358 Introduction Psychopharmacology, the study of how drugs affect the brain and behavior, is a relatively new science, although people have probably been taking drugs to change how they feel from early in human history (consider the of eating fermented fruit, ancient beer recipes, chewing on the leaves of the cocaine plant for stimulant properties as just some examples). The word psychopharmacology itself tells us that this is a field that bridges our understanding of behavior (and brain) and pharmacology, and the range of topics included within this field is extremely broad. Virtually any drug that changes the way you feel does this by altering how neurons communicate with each other. Neurons (more than 100 billion in your nervous system) communicate with each other by releasing a chemical (neurotransmitter) across a tiny space between two neurons (the synapse). When the neurotransmitter crosses the synapse, it binds to a postsynaptic receptor (protein) on the receiving neuron and the message may then be transmitted onward. Obviously, Drugs that alter our feelings and behavior do so by affecting neurotransmission is far more complicated the communication between neurons in the brain. Some of the most important in terms of psychopharmacological treatment and drugs of abuse are outlined in Table 1. The neurons that release these neurotransmitters, for the most part, are localized within specific circuits of the brain that mediate these behaviors. Psychoactive drugs can either increase activity at the synapse (these are called agonists) or reduce activity at the synapse (antagonists). Different drugs do this by different mechanisms, and some examples of agonists and antagonists are presented in Table 2. For each example, the drug’s trade name, which is the name of the drug provided by the drug company, and generic name (in parentheses) are provided. A very useful link at the end of this module shows the various steps involved in Psychopharmacology 1359 Table 1 neurotransmission and some ways drugs can alter this. Table 2 provides examples of drugs and their primary mechanism of action, but it is very important to realize that drugs also have effects on other neurotransmitters. This contributes to the kinds of side effects that are observed when someone takes a particular drug. The reality is that no drugs currently available work only exactly where we would like in the brain or only on a specific neurotransmitter. In many cases, individuals are sometimes prescribed one psychotropic drug but then may also have to take additional drugs to reduce the side effects caused by the initial drug. Sometimes individuals stop taking medication because the side effects can be so profound. While this section may sound more like pharmacology, it is important to realize how important pharmacokinetics can be when considering psychoactive drugs. Pharmacokinetics refers to Psychopharmacology 1360 Table 2 how the body handles a drug that we take. As mentioned earlier, psychoactive drugs exert their effects on behavior by altering neuronal communication in the brain, and the majority of drugs reach the brain by traveling in the blood. We will talk about a couple of these to show their importance for considering psychoactive drugs. Drug Administration There are many ways to take drugs, and these routes of drug administration can have a significant impact on how quickly that drug reaches brain. Drugs enter the stomach and then get absorbed by the blood supply and capillaries that line the small intestine. The rate of absorption can be affected by a variety of factors including the quantity and the type of food in the stomach. Both of these routes of administration can get the drug to brain in less than 10 seconds. For drugs that reach the brain very quickly, not only is the drug very addictive, but so are the cues associated with the drug (see Rohsenow, Niaura, Childress, Abrams, & Monti, 1990). For a cigarette smoker, however, it could be something as normal as finishing dinner or waking up in the morning (if that is when the smoker usually has a cigarette). For both the crack user and the cigarette smoker, the cues associated with the drug may actually cause craving that is alleviated by (you guessed it) – lighting a cigarette or using crack. This is one of the reasons individuals that enroll in drug treatment programs, especially out-of-town programs, are at significant risk of relapse if they later find themselves in proximity to old haunts, friends, etc. These examples help you begin to understand how important the route of administration can be for psychoactive drugs. Drug Metabolism Metabolism involves the breakdown of psychoactive drugs, and this occurs primarily in the liver. The liver produces enzymes (proteins that speed up a chemical reaction), and these Psychopharmacology 1362 enzymes help catalyze a chemical reaction that breaks down psychoactive drugs. Enzymes exist in “families,” and many psychoactive drugs are broken down by the same family of enzymes, the cytochrome P450 superfamily. There is not a unique enzyme for each drug; rather, certain enzymes can break down a wide variety of drugs. Tolerance to the effects of many drugs can occur with repeated exposure; that is, the drug produces less of an effect over time, so more of the drug is needed to get the same effect. This is particularly true for sedative drugs like alcohol or opiate-based painkillers. Some drugs (like alcohol) cause enzyme induction – an increase in the enzymes produced by the liver. For example, chronic drinking results in alcohol being broken down more quickly, so the alcoholic needs to drink more to get the same effect – of course, until so much alcohol is consumed that it damages the liver (alcohol can cause fatty liver or cirrhosis). Recent Issues Related to Psychotropic Drugs and Metabolism Grapefruit Juice and Metabolism Certain types of food in the stomach can alter the rate of drug absorption, and other foods can also alter the rate of drug metabolism. Grapefruit juice suppresses cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver, and these liver enzymes normally break down a large variety of drugs (including some of the psychotropic drugs). If the enzymes are suppressed, drug levels can build up to potentially toxic levels. In this case, the effects can persist for extended periods of time after the consumption of grapefruit juice. As of 2013, there are at least 85 drugs shown to adversely interact with grapefruit juice (Bailey, Dresser, & Arnold, Grapefruit can interfere with enzymes in the liver that 2013). A link at the end of this module gives the latest list of drugs reported to have this unusual interaction. Psychopharmacology 1363 Individualized Therapy, Metabolic Differences, and Potential Prescribing Approaches for the Future Mental illnesses contribute to more disability in western countries than all other illnesses including cancer and heart disease. Depression alone is predicted to be the second largest contributor to disease burden by 2020 (World Health Organization, 2004). The numbers of people affected by mental health issues are pretty astonishing, with estimates that 25% of adults experience a mental health issue in any given year, and this affects not only the individual but their friends and family. One in 17 adults experiences a serious mental illness (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005). Newer antidepressants are probably the most frequently prescribed drugs for treating mental health issues, although there is no “magic bullet” for treating depression or other conditions. Pharmacotherapy with psychological therapy may be the most beneficial treatment approach for many psychiatric conditions, but there are still many unanswered questions.


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Performance of the traditional age medicine ethics cheap atomoxetine 18mg online, Italian Federation of Cardiology medications 4 less canada atomoxetine 25 mg mastercard, Carmine Riccio; Kosovo medications 123 purchase atomoxetine 10mg line. Ruling out coronary artery disease in primary care: develop Malta: Maltese Cardiac Society medicine 6 year course generic atomoxetine 25mg on-line, Andrew J. Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients pre Cardiology, Hristo Pejkov; Norway: Norwegian Society of. Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Cardiology, Vibeke Juliebo; Poland: Polish Cardiac Society, Piotr. Voysey M, Emberson J, Blackwell L, Mihaylova B, Simes J, Collins R, Kirby A, stituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts)Developed. Medical treatment and long-term outcome of chronic atrial fibrillation in the ure by sex: a meta-analysis. 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An update on radial artery access tomography angiography in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Cathet Cardiovasc without myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in. Long-term survival of medically treated patients in S, Cerci R, Zier S, Gotthardtova L, Jonszta T, Altin T, Soydal C, Patel C, Gulati. Prognostic value of fractional flow reserve: linking physio Interv 2015;8:824A833. Comparison of the prognostic value of negative Vanderheyden M, Barbato E, Wijns W, De Bruyne B. Van Belle E, Rioufol G, Pouillot C, Cuisset T, Bougrini K, Teiger E, Champagne S. A prospective natural history study of Belle L, Barreau D, Hanssen M, Besnard C, Dauphin R, Dallongeville J, El Hahi Y. J Am Coll Cardiol Sideris G, Bretelle C, Lhoest N, Barnay P, Leborgne L, Dupouy P; Investigators of. Malas M, van der Tempel J, Schwartz R, Minichiello A, Lightfoot C, tion: a systematic review and meta-analysis of global longitudinal strain and ejec-. Hajek P, Phillips-Waller A, Przulj D, Pesola F, Myers Smith K, Bisal N, Li J, dict cardiac events: comparison of patients with acute myocardial infarction and. Fruit and vegetable S, Naganuma T, Reith S, Voros S, Latib A, Gonzalo N, Quadri G, Colombo A. Viljoen E, Avezum A, Altuntas Y, Yusoff K, Ismail N, Peer N, Chifamba J, Diaz R, Group. Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52. Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing of the American Heart Association and the 2017;38:219A241. Sexual activity and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the Physiology (Bethesda) 2013;28:330A358. Change in sexual activity after a cardiac event: the time physical activity with cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and. Nieuwlaat R, Wilczynski N, Navarro T, Hobson N, Jeffery R, Keepanasseril A, of Heidelberg, Cochrane Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Group, Institute. Interventions for enhancing medication prognostic effect of cardiac rehabilitation in the era of acute revascularisation. Identification and assessment of adherence-enhancing interventions in studies 153. Predictors, trends, and outcomes (among older patients > 65 years of age) asso felodipine-metoprolol 10/100 mg compared with each drug alone in patients. Zhang H, Yuan X, Zhang H, Chen S, Zhao Y, Hua K, Rao C, Wang W, Sun H, used as add-on therapy in patients with stable angina: a systematic review and. Puymirat E, Riant E, Aissaoui N, Soria A, Ducrocq G, Coste P, Cottin Y, patients with angina pectoris. Double-blind, multicenter, active-controlled, random calcium antagonists, and mortality in stable coronary artery disease: an interna-. Oral nicoran tinuation of beta-blockers in patients without heart failure optimally treated. Effect of nicorandil on coronary events in patients with Antianginal therapy for stable ischemic heart disease: a contemporary review. Effects of ranolazine on angina and quality of life after Effect of long-acting nifedipine on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in. The role of trimetazidine in cardiovascu and amlodipine plus atenolol on exercise performance and ambulatory ischemia. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Questions and answers on the review of medi Efficacy of ivabradine, a new selective I(f) inhibitor, compared with atenolol in. The efficacy of trimetazidine on ing beta-blocker therapy: a 4-month, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Effect of high-dose allo Ivabradine for patients with stable coronary artery disease and left-ventricular. Tuunanen H, Engblom E, Naum A, Nagren K, Scheinin M, Hesse B, Juhani with isosorbide-5-mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate: results from two multi-. Usefulness of heart rate at rest as a predictor of mortality, hospitalization for effort angina pectoris. Long-term ticagrelor monotherapy versus stand in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: relation to electromechanical delay. Biomarkers in relation to the effects of ticagrelor in comparison with clopidog 270. Merkely B, Zeymer U, Gropper S, Nordaby M, Kleine E, Harper R, Manassie J, N Engl J Med 2012;366:9A19. Prevention of bleeding in patients Plotnikov A, Mundl H, Strony J, Sun X, Husted S, Tendera M, Montalescot G. N Engl J Med cular disease risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force. Does beta-blocker therapy improve clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarc through a cumulative meta-analysis. Longitudinal Registry of Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease Ball S, Pogue J, Moye L, Braunwald E. Prevalence of anginal symptoms and myocardial ische patients with heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: a systematic overview. Frobert O, Kala P, Linke A, Jagic N, Mates M, Mavromatis K, Samady H, Irimpen J Med 2000;342:145A153. Percutaneous coronary interventions for non-acute coronary artery disease: a study). Initial coronary stent implantation with function or heart failure: a combined analysis of three trials. Percutaneous coronary interven Woodward M, Billot L, Harrap S, Poulter N, Marre M, Cooper M, Glasziou P.

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Epub each case treatment resistant depression discount atomoxetine 40mg without prescription, the decisions whether or not to treatment 5th metatarsal stress fracture cheap atomoxetine 18mg with amex use an invasive tech 2007 Nov 26 treatment west nile virus atomoxetine 10mg without a prescription. Insertion of subdural nique and treatment 1860 neurological discount atomoxetine 40 mg overnight delivery, if so, which one should be based on results of an strip electrodes for the investigation of temporal lobe epilepsy. Intracranial electroencephalog raphy with subdural grid electrodes: techniques, complications, and out neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing. Clinical outcome after complete or sive techniques varies among surgeons; as with other types of partial cortical resection for intractable epilepsy. Advancement in neuronavigation techniques for epilepsy surgery in children and adults. Intraventricular monitoring for tem poral lobe epilepsy: report on technique and initial results in eight patients. The drawings in this chapter are original art by Elaine J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Responses to single pulse elec trical stimulation identify epileptogenesis in the human brain in vivo. Interictal spike detection comparing sub electrocorticography in nonlesional medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Tailored resections in occipital electrocorticography: relation to clinical outcome in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy surgery guided by monitoring with subdural electrodes: lobe surgery. Comparison of depth and subdural electrodes mic approach to medically intractable epilepsy. All phys iological and pathological consideration renders it improbable that the lesion has any direct relation with epilepsy. Penfield described successful control of Hughlings Jackson provided the intellectual foundations for seizures when he extended the resection to include the uncus the development of epilepsy neurosurgery. Based on a patient’s and hippocampus in patients whose anterior and lateral resec typical motor seizures, Rickman Godlee localized and oper tions did not initially eliminate seizures. In addition, during ated upon a brain tumor in 1884, with Jackson, Ferrier, and the 1957 International Colloquium of Epilepsy at Bethesda, the neurosurgeon Victor Horsley present in the operating Maryland, Paulo Niemeyer described a creative surgical tech room. Two years later, Sir Victor Horsley performed his first nique to remove the amygdala and hippocampus by a trans epilepsy surgery. Clinical observa tions made by Jackson associated “dreamy states” and psychi cal experience with lesions of the mesial temporal lobe. A crude sensation of smell or taste, generally of an that combines anatomical, clinical, and neuroimaging criteria unpleasant nature. Temporal lobe epilepsy without an identified epi quietly, or carry on simple automatic activities such as walk leptogenic lesion (termed cryptogenic, nonlesional, and ing. Habitual consist of lateralized buildup of rhythmic 5 to 7 Hz seizure seizures with limbic characteristics typically begin during the activity (30,31). C: A T2 sequence show ing a large cystic lesion in left temporal lobe with sharply defined borders and no sur rounding edema in a patient with low-grade temporal lobe tumor. One study evaluated the localizing value of abdominal auras in 491 consecutive patients with refrac tory epilepsy (38). In the temporal lobe, arising in or near an area with high epileptogenic potential. In involvement of amygdala was described in 11 of 29 autopsy fact, interictal discharges that exhibit a consistent unilateral cases (16). Extrahippocampal studies, being unilateral in 70% to 80% of cases and bilateral damage has also been described in the entorhinal cortex in in 20% to 30%. This group has detected, and there was adequate contralateral memory func been termed cryptogenic, nonlesional, and paradoxical tem tion on Wada memory test. In a involving nontemporal lobe structures making complete resec series of 37 patients with dual pathology, the mean age of tion difficult. The pooled proportions weighted by number of patients are also represented by the large vertical bar. The the surgical group were seizure free at 1 year compared with authors found a similar diagnostic accuracy, with both stud 8% in the medical group (P 0. Studies comparing source local dom after surgery averaging from 65% to 68% of patients. All but one study reported Seizure Outcome: Long-Term Outcome Studies more than 60% seizure freedom at 10 years follow-up. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment on Management of Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy, 2003. In patients with temporal pocampus were resected, the rate of seizure freedom lobe tumors, two studies report that 65% of patients remain decreased to 20% or less (99). Their results indicate that, in seizure free with follow-up of 9 years or more (21,64). In a patients with dual pathology, removal of both the lesion and series of 207 patients with brain tumors, of which 170 were in the atrophic hippocampus is the best surgical approach to the temporal lobe, 82% patients were free of disabling optimize the chance of becoming seizure free after surgery seizures after 1 year, and 81% remained seizure free over a 10 (100). One study revealed that who had temporal lobe tumors were free of disabling seizures 78% of patients were seizure free in 14 patients with tempo after surgery (94). A recent study reported Clinical Predictors of Surgical Outcome 75% of patients as Engel Class I at 16 years after surgery (21). Multiple studies have attempted to identify clinical factors these results were similar to two other studies that reported a that would predict outcomes after epilepsy surgery; the likelihood of remaining free of disabling seizures at 79% after results are often inconsistent (Table 82. By com studies fail to control for clinical factors that are highly corre parison, other authors reported that the likelihood of remain lated. A systematic review of psy association was found, the effect size was small, or the chosocial outcome after epilepsy surgery concluded that all association was weak. A study evaluating patients before and after temporal patients seizure and drug-free (cured). To address this ques resections found that in subjects with dominant hemisphere tion, Schmidt et al. In another meta-analysis, using more stringent selection crite Temporal lobe resections in the language-dominant hemi ria, only 16% of patients with temporal lobe surgery patients sphere are also associated with declines in object naming. They also found that words Improves Quality of Life acquired later in life were more susceptible to being lost post operatively than words learned earlier in life (112). The most common axis I diagnosis were anxiety disor improvement is related to seizure control (108,109). However, a small series of five patients submit prevalence of depression in patients seizure free after surgery ted to nearly the same protocol showed disappointing results. In addition, a prospective, multicenter study none of the three survivors had seizure reduction (120). A recent study reported surgical outcome and lesions where longer durations of epilepsy are associated with rate of complications in 52 patients older than 50 years for worse outcomes. In addition, the authors also neuroimaging, and develop new treatment options for those found that neuropsychological deterioration was more pro who are not candidates for temporal lobe resections, such as nounced in the older subgroup, probably due to decreased brain stimulation and radiosurgery. Another future challenge will be the ability to offer surgical treatment to more people of the world. It is based on multiple X-ray beams from the opportunity to be evaluated and treated to reduce the a highly collimated radiation source oriented by stereotactic global burden of epilepsy. Practice parameter: temporal lobe and persisting seizures up to 2 years after the procedure. The localized neocortical resections for epilepsy: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology, in asso mechanisms underlying seizure control in patients submitted ciation with the American Epilepsy Society and the American Association to radiosurgery are not fully understood. Erkrankung des ammonshorns als aetiologiches moment der abdominal aura and its evolution: a study in focal epilepsies. Epilepsy and other convulsive diseases: their causes, symp mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with bilateral interictal spikes. Somato-motor, autonomic and electrocorticographic responses epilepsy with unitemporal versus bitemporal interictal epileptiform dis to electrical stimulation of rhinencephalic and other structures in pri charges. Clinical seizure lateralization in orbito-insular, piriform and temporal cortex, hippocampus-fornix and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: differences between patients with unitem amygdala. In: Engel electroencephalographic and neuropathological study of the brain in J, Jr. Volumetric magnetic resonance phy, neuropsychological testing, neuroimaging, surgical results, and imaging evidence of bilateral hippocampal atrophy in mesial temporal pathology. Outcome after temporal lobec measurements of the hippocampal formation and anterior temporal lobe: tomy in bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

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Studies with split-brain patients one hemisphere draws resources away from way for split-brain work in humans medicine zofran buy generic atomoxetine 25mg online. The effect of asymmetry in humans is in the domain of as part–whole relations19 medicine cabinet shelves atomoxetine 40mg line, spatial relation task difficulty on hemispheric integration language symptoms quitting smoking buy 40 mg atomoxetine. In the vast majority of the popu ships20 medicine in the 1800s purchase 18 mg atomoxetine with amex, apparent motion detection21, mental has also been shown in the intact brain by lation, the left hemisphere is dominant for rotation22, spatial matching23 and mirror Banich and colleagues31–33. Despite hemispheric that simpler tasks are best processed in one the left hemisphere15. The left hemisphere differences in the performance of these tasks, hemisphere, whereas more complex tasks is also specialized for processing written the two hemispheres are equally able to per benefit from the increased computational language, although the right hemisphere form many visual tasks that lack a spatial power provided by interhemispheric coopera does have a limited capacity for reading. Their studies show that when the able to read whole words (ideographic lexi Despite cortical disconnection, the two processing capabilities of a single hemisphere cal/semantic access) but is unable to convert hemispheres are connected through sub are inadequate for a given task, the process graphemes to phonemes, a task that is easily cortical pathways in split-brain patients. Whereas studies of patients with complete Although most findings from work with For example, using visual search tasks, it callosotomies provide insights into callosal split-brain patients were consistent with has been shown that in patients who have versus non-callosal interhemispheric inte previous studies of patients with unilateral undergone complete callosotomy, each gration, studies of patients with partial lesions, some studies have changed our hemisphere maintains an independent focus lesions of the corpus callosum have yielded view of the neural organization of language, of attention26. Bilateral stimulus arrays can, insights into the functional specificity of the and have revealed unexpected modularity therefore, be scanned faster by split-brain callosum34–36. One such example is the left patients than by neurologically normal regions blocks the transfer of particular handed split-brain patient V. Therefore, there are to generate speech from her left hemisphere is evidence for interhemispheric integra areas of the callosum dedicated to the trans but not from her right18, and, conversely, is tion, even when the cortical commissures fer of visual information, somatosensory able to generate written language from her have been severed27. This simple fact alerts us to the and other factors also influence the measure differences that exist among homologous ment of the direction and magnitude of structures as we attempt to build animal water diffusion48,53. Studies of patients with ance of a task that required interhemispheric partial callosal lesions show that the callosum transfer to explore individual differences in is organized in a specific way, with the more callosal transmission54. Healthy participants topographical organization of the corpus posterior regions transferring basic sensory were asked to identify objects presented from callosum34–36. Successful completion of this brings us to the present era and to tion and somatosensory information35,45,46, this task requires information transfer from why there is new excitement about unearth whereas the more anterior regions seem to the right parietal cortex, which is responsi ing the networks of the brain and developing be involved in the transfer of attentional ble for recognizing objects in unusual ori a deeper understanding of the mind. The resources and higher cognitive informa entations55, to the left inferior frontal cortex, evolution of split-brain testing has led us tion47. Split-brain whereas longer reaction times were associ research is informing neuroimaging studies other methodologies. These and is providing the basis for interpreting findings indicate that there are two callosal neuroimaging results. This between the parietal cortices, and a slower techniques, identify processing networks neuroimaging technique provides a way of anterior pathway between the inferior fron that involve both hemispheres, and also characterizing the structural organization of tal cortices. In the brain, water At present, Molly Colvin is expanding this nisms of cognition. In white matter, water measures of interhemispheric transfer time encompass a wide range of issues. The stimuli for the collision experiment consisted of three panels that depicted the motion of a ball (A) towards another ball (B), and the subsequent motion of B. The movements of the two balls individual differences in callosal organiza were either contiguous in space and time, or included a small spatial or temporal gap. Note that the tion might determine rates and routes of labels A and B are for illustrative purposes only and did not appear on the actual stimuli. In both of the interhemispheric integration, and influence split-brain patients, the right hemisphere performed better than the left in judging the causal nature of functional lateralization62,63. Stimuli for the causal inference experiment consisted of the this new evidence from neuroimaging is, sequential presentation of four stimulus interactions (1–4) and a response probe, which represented therefore, causing us to rethink earlier con one trial. Arrows indicate the movement of one or both of the coloured ‘switches’ on each presentation. In presentation 3, the clusions about interhemispheric interaction lightbox was not illuminated. After observing four interactions between the switches and the lightbox, and recruitment that were drawn from split participants were required to judge whether the response probe represented the switch that had brain testing alone. In both patients, the left hemisphere performed better than the right from the two methodologies is likely to con in drawing simple causal inferences. It which provides strong evidence for the ing in one hemisphere that results from the has been argued that understanding causal functional specificity of callosal sub-regions ageing process. A task that one hemisphere ity depends on both perceptual and infer in the intact human brain. Indeed, a ‘colliding’ evoke an illusion of causality that is region thought to connect the motor cor similar model seems to apply to individual constructed by the visual system in a manner tices — were found when the task required variations in the performance of young similar to the construction of other high rapid visuomotor integration. For tasks that required rapid Explanations for using two hemispheres from observers’ reports, which are open to interhemispheric integration (for exam instead of one for harder tasks introduce the post-perceptual interpretation. Split-brain ple, transfer of visual information to the issues of how the corpus callosum allocates patients provide a means of teasing apart the hemisphere directing a motor response), processing resources between hemispheres. The central question was 0 102030405060708090100 Percent self in image whether the more inferential task (the second experiment) would be lateralized to the same Figure 2 | Face recognition of self versus a familiar other in a split-brain patient. The right cerebral hemisphere required at least 80% of ‘self’ in the image for self to infer causality depended on different recognition to occur. In both patients, the left hemisphere was able to draw simple causal inferences, but was unable to Self-recognition cortical areas in the right hemisphere impairs use this capacity to determine the causal Severing the corpus callosum in humans the ability to recognize others71–75. Conversely, the has raised a fundamental question about the But is the right hemisphere similarly right hemisphere was sensitive to the causal nature of the self: does each disconnected specialized for self-recognition Although nature of collision events but was unable to half brain have its own sense of self This finding with split-brain patients quickly established idea76–78, the available evidence is inconclu implies that understanding causality is not that each half brain is specialized for certain sive. Neuroimaging studies have revealed that a unitary process and that causal perception functions and is capable of processing stimuli highly self-relevant material (for example, and causal inference can proceed independ without the obvious help or awareness of the autobiographical memories) activates a range ently. But could it be that each of cortical networks in the left hemisphere that depend on the ability to perform inference hemisphere has its own point of view, its own could, potentially, support self-recognition or interpretation at the simple level required self-referential system that is truly separate and a host of related cognitive functions79–82. There the right hemisphere, self-recognition might their investigations by identifying regions in were moments when one hemisphere seemed be supported by additional left-lateralized the right hemisphere involved in perceiving to be belligerent while the other was calm. There were significantly higher There were times when the left hand (control sibility, David Turk and colleagues assessed levels of relative activation in the right mid led by the right hemisphere) behaved playfully face recognition of self versus a familiar other dle frontal gyrus and the right inferior pari with an object that was held out of view while in a split-brain patient83. However, of the dozens of instances photographs that ranged from 0% to 100% temporal contingencies, and found that recorded over the years, none allowed for a self images. Although it has been dif familiar’ other), was used to represent 0% regions were uniquely activated by one or ficult to study the ‘self’ per se, there have been self and a photograph of J. Nine additional images manipulations and right temporal cortex for cognitive processing relating to the self. Research has revealed much about the software, with each image representing a these data, combined with the results of processes and brain structures that sup 10% incremental shift from M. In one condition (self-recogni eral observations about the nature of causal example, friends, family members and tion), J. Both functional imaging and presented image was himself; in the other of physical causality is the result of cortical patient studies show that face recognition condition (familiar other recognition), he processes mediated by the right hemisphere. Interhemispheric interaction in the split Cognitive Neuroscience, 6162 Moore Hall, brain. Metacontrol of hemispheric hemisphere is quick to detect a partial self function in human split-brain patients. A study of gnosis, praxis and language processes after posterior callosal section. Neurology 23, ognition might reflect a key role of the left following section of the corpus callosum and anterior 1126–1130 (1973). Function of the corpus callosum in Interhemispheric transfer in patients with incomplete edge, or might depend on the left-brain interocular transfer. Observations on visual perception after disconnexion of Handbook of Neuropsychology 2nd Edn Vol. Brain and Language 14, Insights into functional specificity of the human corpus a brain-imaging environment can illumi 205–234 (1981). Posterior corpus callosum and nate basic mechanisms of human cognition 205–231 (Guildford, New York, 1985).

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