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A subjective experience or mental 572 visual induction vitalism representation of an object or scene in the visual receptor absence of t hat object or scene skin care insurance purchase eurax 20 gm visa, usually for med n acne facials buy 20 gm eurax. A cell that converts the energy of light into by memory or constructed by imagination acne 19 years old purchase eurax 20gm without a prescription. Thus the rods and cones in the eye convert the energy of light which visual induction strikes them into nerve impulses acne vulgaris treatments buy eurax 20 gm fast delivery, which ulti n. The effect of one part of a visual scene mately result in the experience of seeing or the visual feld on other parts of it. The capacity to remember what has been teristics of the target object and various dis seen in the form of virtual images in the tracter objects are varied to investigate effects mind. The game Find Visual-Motor Gestalt Test Waldo is a nonexperimental example of a n. The test is used as a screening instrument for brain damage in adults and for visuomotor priming developmental problems in children, as well n. The process of facilitating or inhibiting as occasionally for psychological disorders a motor action by presenting a visual image such as depression. The capacity to detect light and per immediately before picking up the glass will ceive objects refecting light. The idea that there is a life force which in turn may lead to generation of a neural cannot be explained in terms of physical impulse causing us to see light. In the rods this sciences such as physics and chemistry, usu chemical is known as rhodopsin; the different ally including the idea that the life force kinds in cone cells are called iodopsins. A photoreactive chemicals found in retinal the idea of libido in Freud’s psychology is rods, which changes shape when struck by a sometimes viewed as a form of vitalism, as photon of appropriate energy, which then is the teleological principle in Jung’s writ causes the rod to hyperpolarize, sending an ings. Vitalism is gradually being replaced in electrical impulse to the nerve and other cells academic thought by the idea of emergent to which it is connected. Rhodopsin bleaches properties in which new aspects emerge that out quickly at high ambient brightness levels are not necessarily inferable from the parts and is responsible for night vision. The idea that mental disorders and physi is the mechanism by which people speak and cal diseases are a result of the lack or oversup make other sounds. The amount of tension ply of specifc chemicals in the body and can on the folds regulates the tone of the sound be treated by supplying chemicals to bring produced. Thus it has been sug are amplifed by resonation in the cavities gested that vitamin C could cure the common of the chest, throat, mouth, nose, and sinus. The vocal cords (also vocal folds) are two used to predict success in a particular occu folds of fesh housed in the larynx and sur pation. Muscles in the larynx varied tests of the abilities assumed to be pull the vocal cords apart (abduct) during central to successful performance in the breathing, opening the glottis and allow occupation. During phonation vocational counseling (in the production of voiced sounds, such n. The process of assisting a person to fnd as vowels and voiced consonants), the vocal an appropriate job or career through testing, cords move together (adduct). The increased personal interviews, and discussions of the subglottal pressure forces air through the nature and qualifcations for particular jobs vocal cords, causing them to move apart. Any general or specifc curiosity, pref 125 Hz (cycles per second) in adult males, erence for, or concern with an area that is 200 Hz in females, 300 Hz in children; these found to be or deemed to be characteristic differences are linked to differences in the of persons who are successful in particular size of the larynx, the length and mass of occupations. Thus the Strong Vocational the vocal cords, and the length of the vocal Interest Blank scores persons on their simi tract. The result of the cyclical opening and larity in preferences, interests, and activities closing of the vocal folds is voicing, or pho to persons who are successful in a variety of nation, in speech production or singing: a careers. A graphic representation of the tones and lips which stretch across the larynx whose cadences of human speech, which has been opening is called the glottis. The vibration of used in attempts to identify individuals but 574 volley theory of hearing vowel has not generally been found to be satisfacto answer to any question its owner asked of it rily reliable. It was eventually assumed by scien auditory nerve tract responds to every sound tists that the owner was unconsciously giving stimulus but that some group of cells responds Hans subtle cues. This story has been used to each stimulus so that in a succession of ever since that time as an example of reach sound waves some respond to the frst wave, ing false conclusions by overlooking impor some to the second, some to the third, up tant variables in research. Nerve cells can of items, the items that are most distinctive respond at most between 500 and 100 times will be best remembered. As an instance, if a per second, and yet we can hear sounds at up list of words is printed in black ink except for to about 20,000 cycles per second because of one word printed in blue ink, the word in blue the partial response pattern of auditory nerve ink is more likely to be remembered. The death of a person after a curse by a voo volume color doo priest or sorcerer. The characteristic of color distributed primarily among members of the cultures throughout the volume of a transparent of Haiti, Africa, Australia, and some islands object, such as color that is distributed in the Caribbean Sea and Pacifc Ocean in throughout water with a dye in it. No satisfactory mechanism for the deaths has been discovered by science, volumetric thirst although they are widely supposed to be due n. The act of choosing by indicating one’s voluntary muscle preference for a person or course of action. Any of the muscles of the body connected to the skeleton which can be controlled at will voting paradox by the individual. If a vote of preference is held with three choices, x, y, and z with three voters, suppose vomeronasal organ one person has a preference for x, y, and z in n. A narrow horizontal channel ending in a that order; the second voter chooses z, y, and pouch on each side of the septum in each nos x in that order; and the third voter chooses y, tril containing chemoreceptors that are espe z, and x in that order. Then x is preferred by cially responsive to sex pheromones in many two to one to y, y is preferred by two to one to animals. Any of the letters a, e, i, o, u, or y or the 1900s for being able to give the correct sounds they represent, which are voiced by an 575 voyeurism wavelength unobstructed fow of air through the glottis formation with children. In Vygotsky’s research, the voyeurism subject is asked to sort the blocks into cat n. A disorder in which a person has a recur egories using nonsense words written on the rent and intense desire to watch unsuspecting bottom of the blocks but not explained to the and nonconsenting persons who are naked, subject. The subject is then asked ing the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, the meaning of the nonsense words, and and vestibule of the vagina. A test for determining the separate func extent of damage and the distance between the tioning of the two cerebral hemispheres cell body and the enervated tissue. In research, in which a drug, usually sodium amytal, is degeneration is sometimes brought about inten injected into one of the internal carotid arter tionally in order to track the path of an axon. This test is primarily used before to obtain a specifc amount of water from brain surgery, typically temporal leucotomy three or more jugs having a specifc capacity. For instance, a subject might be asked how to obtain 10 quarts using a jug that holds 12 Walden Two quarts, one that holds 5 quarts, and one that n. Of or relating to the theories of James behave in ways which are good for the com B. The muscles or other wavelength cells innervated by the destroyed axon typically n. Axons sometimes grow back after such sive waves measured in the direction of 576 Weber-Fechner law Wechsler Intelligence Tests propagation in any medium. Wavelength is matrix reasoning, picture arrangement, sym equal to the speed of the wave divided by its bol search, and object assembly. The wavelengths of light visible scores can also be computed for verbal com to humans extend from violet at about 380 prehension, perceptual organization, work nanometers to red at about 760 nanometers. Army Alpha and Weber-Fechner law Beta tests as a basis while he was employed at n. The bat ception of a stimulus a fxed amount, the abso tery has subsequently been revised several lute intensity of the stimulus must increase times and was the basis for the contemporary exponentially, following the formula s = k Wechsler Scales of Intelligence. It consists of nine tests including needed for a person to notice a difference word reading, pseudoword reading, reading changes with the intensity of the stimulus so comprehension, spelling, written expression, that a bright light needs to change more than numerical operations, mathematical reason a dim light for a person to notice a change in ing, and oral expression and generates con brightness. The idea that there is a constant relation Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children ship between the intensity of a stimulus and n. The tests do not require the child to is a change in physical intensity, and k is a have the ability to read or write in order to constant). Army memory for digits, picture completion, cod general ability tests and last revised in 1997.

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The characteristic of being sexually people in many felds of study acne 101 discount eurax 20 gm with amex, including psy aroused by stimulation most people would chology acne before and after buy eurax 20gm visa, sociology skin care house philippines buy cheap eurax 20 gm on-line, anthropology skin care news cheap 20 gm eurax with visa, communi consider painful and especially the inten cations, and history. It often includes a desire to give up power and masculinity responsibility and to submit to another who n. The characteristics associated with a men has appropriately arousing intentions to dom in general which in cross-cultural studies inate and/or infict pain. In psychoanaly include being a protector and being unemo sis, the tendency to bring shame, suffering, tional, strong, enduring, authoritative, active, and humiliation on oneself as a result of guilt dominant, critical, and aggressive. The Mf Scale on the California Psychological Inventory, in which people are mass hysteria assessed as to the degree to which they resem n. A rapid outbreak of emotional outbursts, ble the self-descriptions of men and women. This is the most common form of masking sexual expression in human males, very com n. Most nonhuman mammals mas &&&&) close in time and near in location turbate, as do some nonmammalian species. Manual manipulation of another’s genitals occur in any sensory modality; but it is most for the purpose of sexual arousal or pleasure. The Miller Analogies Test is a measure of masking, interruption masking, metacon intellectual ability which uses a graded series trast masking, and common-onset masking of items of increasing diffculty in which sub (or object-substitution masking). In auditory jects must fll in a missing part of an analogy 298 matched-groups procedure materialism for each item. This has commonly been used distributed according to the degree to which in graduate school admissions. Thus a response through which the subject has received 50% of its rein matched-groups procedure forcement will occur about 50% of the time, n. A research procedure in which two or more and a response through which a subject has groups are selected on the basis of being the received 20% of its reinforcement will occur same on one or more variables so as to ensure about 20% of the time. A research procedure in which pairs of introduced in the timing of the presentation subjects are selected on the basis of being of the stimuli, the number, and the type of the same on one or more important variables both test and alternative stimuli in order to and are then randomly assigned to one of two test a variety of hypotheses about discrimina differently treated groups in an experiment. The purpose is to ensure that the variables on which the subjects are matched do not inter mate poaching fere with the effect of the independent vari n. Materialism has been defned in a variety nitive dimension of refection versus impul of ways. However, such defnitions all tend to sivity in which subjects are shown a picture describe materialism as the emphasis that one of a familiar object and are required to select places on material possessions, as a central which of six other pictures are identical to feature of one’s existence, a means to happi the original one. Those who are Additionally, materialistic people have been slower than median and above the median described as greedy, possessive of their own in accuracy are deemed refective. Those possessions, and envious of other people’s who are quicker than the median and make possessions. Although it is postulated that more than the median number of errors are materialism does have some benefts, such as deemed impulsive. Those who are quicker stimulating macroeconomic activity and help than the median and make fewer errors than ing people achieve happiness (in the short the median are called quick, and those who term), much research has examined the pitfalls are slower and make more errors than the of materialism. The test does not of the Earth’s resources and long-term indi theoretically account for those who are in vidual dysfunction such as lower levels of life the quick and slow categories. However, some research suggests that differ matching hypothesis ent people can be materialistic for different n. The idea that individuals are attracted to reasons, and it may be the reasons why individ or join with persons of similar levels of physi uals are materialistic that are associated with cal attractiveness within a particular culture. Research is thus starting to differ entiate between functional materialism (such matching law as providing for one’s family) and dysfunc n. In operant conditioning, the idea that tional materialism (such as the “need” to own responses among several alternatives will be multiple expensive sports cars). Any one of several measures of central inadequate in a number of ways, including tendency, the most common of which is the loss of an attachment fgure, lack of physical arithmetic mean, which is the sum of a set of care, lack of attention or responsiveness to numbers divided by how many numbers are the needs of the infant, or expression of dis in the set. The sum of a set of a fnite set of numbers matrix, correlation divided by how many numbers there are in n. The left-to-right between a set of observations and their arith diagonal of such a matrix represents the cor metic mean used to indicate degree of dis relation of a variable with itself, which would persion around a central point. This statistic be 1 but is often flled with a reliability corre is seldom used, as in many distributions it lation of the variable involved. A n aver age ca lculated by t ak ing t he recipro cesses of growth and development in any cal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals living thing. It combine visual and auditory information in is often used as a measure of language devel understanding speech. The arithmetic mean of a set of observa tape is likely to combine the two sources of tions drawn from a population of possible information and hear an intermediate word observations. In statistics, a form of chi-square test for examines the difference between the present dichotomous variables which tests whether state and the desired state and attempts to the two possibilities are equally likely while fnd a way to reduce the difference between making no assumptions about the popula the two, often in a step-by-step manner. This test is often used when Sophisticated analyses allow a step further 300 mean square mediating variable away from the desired state if it allows greater and 27 is 21. In artifcial extreme scores and is the best measure to intelligence, the decomposition of problems use for skewed distributions, such as annual into a series of goals and subgoals which income, in which a small number of scores either more closely approximate the goal or may be extremely high. For example, in the remove obstacles to closer approximation of distribution of hourly wages $13, $15, $15, $17, the goal state. In statistics, a test of the likelihood that mean square samples with two medians are drawn from the n. The arithmetic mean of the squares of any same population that does not depend on the set of numbers. A mediating variable explains how or why sent dimensions or aspects of perceived real two variables are related by specifying that ity according to a system of rules. There is measure of central tendency a temporal relation such that the initial var n. A numerical index of the middle of a set iable is related to the mediating variable and of numbers around a central point such as then the mediating variable is related to the mean, median, and mode. Mediating variables may be observed measures used in a statistical analy medial forebrain bundle sis, or they may be theoretical constructs that n. One of the diffcul which constitute the most important pleasure ties of research on mediating variables is the centers in the brain, which lie on each side of development of accurate measures of theoret the hypothalamus and connect the ventral ical mediating constructs. Here the mediating variable provides medial geniculate nucleus an interpretation of the relation between two n. Either of a pair of bumps on the side of the variables by elucidating a process by which thalamus which relay auditory information the initial variable is related to the mediating from the inferior colliculus to the auditory variable and the mediating variable is related cortex. Stimulus-organism response models provided the frst examples median of mediating variables in psychology. The median is a measure of central ten models hypothesized that a mediating vari dency that is located at the center of a dis able in the organism translates the stimulus to tribution of scores that have been ranked in the response. For example, the median in mediate how exposure to information affects the distribution of ages 18, 18, 19, 23, and 24 behavior. More recent applications of mediat is 19 because it occurs at the midpoint of the ing variables are in treatment and prevention group of values. Half the values occur above studies, where a manipulation is designed to and half occur below 19. If the distribution change a mediating variable hypothesized to has an even number of scores, the median be causally related to the outcome variable. For the mediating variable is changed by the treat example, the median of 18, 18, 19, 23, 24, ment program and the mediating variable is 301 medical model membrane truly related to the outcome variable, then the 2. For tion of a subject or an area of thought of a example, a prevention program that changes philosophic or scientifc nature. A mediating process may consist of a long chain of variables that medulla oblongata lead from the initial to the outcome variable. Mediation relations may to many brain centers and is involved in auto differ at different time lags; for example, a nomic processes such as respiration, heart mediation relation may be observed for daily beat, and blood pressure. The statistical assessment of mediating megalomania variables consists of statistical tests of the rela n. An extreme form of grandiosity and self tion of the initial to mediating variable and centeredness in which all things are believed the mediating variable to the outcome vari subservient to one’s self and are seen only able. It is characteristic of levels of the mediating variable helps clarify mania, extreme narcissism, and paranoia.

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By documenting to acne and birth control generic 20gm eurax amex explain an observation and makes predictions this process and having it repeated again and again skin care regimen order eurax 20 gm visa, the drawn from the hypothesis skin care acne 20gm eurax. The next step is designing scientifc method allows our understanding of the world experiments to acne zapper discount eurax 20gm mastercard test the hypothesis and its predictions. When a blue light was pulsed, the insights that each approach has to ofer and combine the whiskers moved (Aravanis et al. By addressing a question fom diferent perspec as well as Frances Crick, would have shouted, “Eureka! Many new opsins have and the behavioral methods it uses to gain insight into ben discovered, including ones that respond to diferent how the brain represents and manipulates information. We then turn to how these methods have ben used to Infared light is advantageous because it penetrates tis characterize the behavioral changes that accompany sue, and thus, it may eliminate the ned for implanting neurological insult or disorder, the subfeld traditionally optical fbers to deliver the light pulse to the target tissue. While neuropsychological Optogenetic methods have ben used to turn on and of studies of human patients are dependent on the vagaries cells in many parts of the brain, providing experimenters of nature, the basic logic of the approach is now pur with new tools to manipulate behavior. A demonstration sued with methods in which neural function is deliber of the clinical potential of this method comes fom a re ately perturbed. We review a range of methods used to cent study in which optogenetic methods were able to perturb neural function. Afer creating observational methods, frst reviewing ways in which light-sensitive neurons in their amygdala (se Chapter 10), cognitive neuroscientists measure neurophysiological a fash of light was sufcient to motivate the mice to move signals in either human or animal models, and second, by away fom the wall of their home cage and boldly step out examining methods in which neural structure and func into the center. Interestingly, this efect worked only if the tion are inferred through measurements of metabolic and light was targeted at a specifc subregion of the amygdala. When studying an organ with If the entire structure was exposed to the light, the mice 11 billion basic elements and gazillions of connections remained anxious and refused to explore their cages. Cognitive neurosci modeling and how it has ben used by cognitive neurosci ence is no exception. It is a feld that emerged in part entists, and we review a powerful analytical and modeling because of the invention of new methods, some of which tool—brain graph theory, which transforms neuroimag use advanced tools unavailable to scientists of previous ing data into models that elucidate the netork proper generations (se Chapter 1; Sejnowski & Churchland, ties of the human brain. In this chapter, we discuss how these methods cognitive neuroscience has depended on the clever ways work, what information can be derived fom them, and in which scientists have integrated paradigms across all their limitations. The chapter concludes other players in the neurosciences, fom neurologists with examples of this integration. Cognitive neuroscience is distinctive in the study of Behavioral Methods the brain and behavior, because it combines paradigms Cognitive neuroscience has ben informed by the prin developed in cognitive psychology with methods em ciples of cognitive psychology, the study of mental ployed to study brain structure and function. They also sek to identif the internal processing— Representations and the acquisition, storage, and use of information—that underlies this performance. A basic assumption of cogni Transformations tive psychology is that we do not directly perceive and Two key concepts underlie the cognitive approach: act in the world. Rather, our perceptions, thoughts, and actions depend on internal transformations or 1. Tese mental representations undergo nize it as something that we have experienced before and transformations. Cognitive psychologists design Mental Representations We usually take for granted experiments to test hypotheses about mental operations the idea that information processing depends on internal by adjusting what goes into the brain and then seing representations. Put more simply, information is input thinking of an image, a word description, or a math into the brain, something secret happens to it, and out ematical formula Cognitive psychologists are detectives of representing the “circular” or “spherical” concept trying to fgure out what those secrets are. The context would help dictate which representa ti edost’n rtaem ni awth rreod eht tlteser ni a rwdo tional format would be most useful. For example, if we rea, eht ylon pirmtoatn gihtn si ath het rifs nda satl wanted to show that the ball rolls down a hill, a pictorial telre eb tat het ghitr clepa. Now take another shot at it: Posner (1986) at the Universit of Oregon, provides a powerful demonstration that even with simple stimuli, Aoccdrnig to a rsehearcr at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, the mind derives multiple representations (Figure 3. The rset can be a total both vowels, both consonants, or one vowel and one con mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. The participant presses one buton if the leters is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter are fom the same category, and the other buton if they by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. It is sur One version of this experiment includes fve condi prisingly easy to read the second passage, even though tions. In the physical-identit condition, the to leters are only a few words are correctly spelled. In the phonetic-identit condition, the and last leters of each word are in the correct position, to leters have the same identit, but one leter is a capi we can accurately infer the correct spelling, especially tal and the other is lowercase. Tere are to tpes of same when the surrounding context helps generate expecta category conditions, conditions in which the to leters tions for each word. In one, both help us discern the content of mental representations, leters are vowels; in the other, both leters are consonants. The dependent variable is the event be manipulating one variable and observing its effect on ing studied. It is what you (the researcher) the independent variable is displayed on the horizontal axis have changed. Finally, in the diferent-category condition, the to leters The results of Posner’s experiment suggest that we are fom diferent categories and can be either of the same derive multiple representations of stimuli. Note that the frst four con tation is based on the physical aspects of the stimulus. In ditions—physical identit, phonetic identit, and the to this experiment, it is a visually derived representation of same-category conditions—require the “same” response: the shape presented on the scren. A second representa On all thre tpes of trials, the correct response is that the tion corresponds to the leter’s identit. For example, we can recognize that Participants respond fastest to the physical-identit condi A, a, and a all represent the same leter. A third level of tion, next fastest to the phonetic-identit condition, and abstraction represents the category to which a leter be slowest to the same-category condition, especially when longs. At this level, the leters A and E activate our internal the to leters are both consonants. The defnition of “same” and “different” is manipulated across different blocks of the experiment. This relationship is the independent variable, the variable that the experimenter is manipulating. Did you register that last sentence, or did all By this logic, we infer that physical representations are the talk about garlic cause your atention to wander as activated frst, phonetic representations next, and cat you made plans for dinner As you may have experienced personally, experi ments like these elicit as many questions as answers. Characterizing Transformational Operations Sup Why do participants take longer to judge that to leters pose you arrive at the grocery store and discover that you are consonants than they do to judge that to leters are forgot to bring your shopping list. Would the same advantage for identical stimuli you ned cofe and milk, the main reason you came; but exist if the leters were spoken As you cruise the aisles, scanning the shelves, ter were visual and the other were auditory Is the pea psychologists address questions like these and then devise nut buter gone As we have just learned, the fun In the leter-matching task, the primary dependent damental goal of cognitive psychology is to identif the variable was reaction (or response) time, the sped with diferent mental operations or transformations that are which participants make their judgments. Chrono Saul Sternberg (1975) introduced an experimental metric comes fom the Grek words chronos (“time”) and task that bears some similarit to the problem faced by metron (“measure”). In Sternberg’s task, however, is essential for cognitive psychologists because mental the job is not recalling items stored in memory, but rather events occur rapidly and efciently. If we consider only comparing sensory information with representations that whether a person is correct or incorrect on a task, we are active in memory. Ten a single leter is presented, and the participant must decide if this leter was part of the memorized set. The Internal Transformations The second critical no participant presses one buton to indicate that the target tion of cognitive psychology is that our mental repre was part of the memory set (“yes” response) and a sec sentations undergo transformations. For instance, the ond buton to indicate that the target was not part of the transformation of mental representations is obvious set (“no” response). Once again, the primary dependent when we consider how sensory signals are connected variable is reaction time. For example, a whif Sternberg postulated that, to respond on this task, the of garlic may transport you to your grandmother’s house participant must engage in four primary mental operations: or to a back alley in Palermo, Italy. The participant must identif the visible olfactory sensation has somehow ben transformed by target.

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Speci cally skin care institute cheap eurax 20 gm line, the shallow notch at the wider distal end lends itself to acne cleanser purchase eurax 20 gm line this by the very shape and the manner of the 255 New Perspectives on the Beginnings of Music Fig acne and dairy cheap eurax 20gm with visa. The fanlike distal widening at the metaphysis forms a kind of natural mouthpiece and thus facilitates the embouchure acne and diet safe eurax 20gm. Such a manner of stimulating sound in a ute is also mentioned several times with other related archeological nds (Galin 1988), including an Upper Paleolithic nd from Pas du Miroir in France (Marshack 1990) where a mouthpiece is clearly visible on a beautifully made and preserved ute. Some authors reject the possibility of such a manner of playing because, in their opinion, the femur of a young cave bear is too wide at the metaphysis for it to be possible to close most of the bone with the lips and at the same time direct air at the cut edge (Horusitzky 1955). This is the main reason for instruments similar to this one being classi ed among trans verse utes. We demonstrated that it is possible to make sound on a bone ute in such a manner. The ute could be held against the lips in various ways (for a more exact description, see Kunej 1997). The bone wall by the distal shallow notch, with a thickness of around 2 to 3mm, had a sharp enough cut edge to enable a ne and pure sound, a fairly large tonal range, and the ability to produce overblowing. Even badly cleaned spongiosa on the fossil bone did not greatly hinder a fair range of tones; it was only more dif cult to achieve higher tones and prevent overblowing. With the reconstruction from fresh bone, badly removed spongiosa had signi cantly less in u ence, since it is more homogeneous and even fatty and was not explic itly porous as is fossil bone. Thus it was simpler to produce sound and to achieve higher tones and overblowing with the reconstruction from fresh bone than with fossil bone. This manner of stimulating sound seemed at rst more suitable from acoustic and ethnomusicological standpoints, and was therefore the most thoroughly tested. The basic pitch and overblowing to produce overtones could be executed on the open or closed ute, and with the closed ute occasionally even to the second overtone. In principle, our nd could also have been adapted into such an instrument if a short block (pple) had been set in the bone to shape the jet of air and direct it at the cut edge (gure 15. A block can also be provided by unremoved spongy bone in which a narrow incision is made (hori zontal hole) that directs the jet of air at the cut edge. Production of such mouthpieces seems more demanding, and our nd has no trace of such a mouthpiece or way of blowing, so a ute of this type was not acousti cally tested. Archeologists have classi ed a large number of bones with holes as transverse utes, a possibility suggested in our instrument by the one hole that at least theoretically enables stimulation of sound. The cut edge 257 New Perspectives on the Beginnings of Music is provided by the sharp edge of the hollowed-out hole on which we blow, and the instrument is thus held crosswise to the mouth (gure 15. It can often be found in the professional literature that such a method of blowing on an instrument is more recent than lengthwise production of sound. We could also stimulate sound with reconstructions in the manner of transverse utes. This was especially possible where the bone wall was thin, in which any kind of hole easily suf ced as a sharp cut edge. With thicker walls, it was necessary to make the hole more carefully in order to create a sharp, rectangular edge. We were able to achieve individual tones only with such a method of blowing, some fairly indis tinct and dif cult to produce. The basic tone of a ute depends on its length and is fairly simple to calculate for cylindrical pipes, or at least pipes of the same mensure (internal cross section and shape, internal pro le) throughout their length. The basic frequency of utes in which the mensure changes (conically, exponentially, etc. The basic pitch, despite the same physical measurements (length, cross section at the ends), can differ considerably because of different internal pro les. The internal pro le also greatly affects the sound spectrum (timbre, higher harmonic oscillations) and the practical possibility of producing sound at all. So with too wide or too narrow an internal pro le, sound cannot be pro duced at all. The interior (medullary cavity) of the femur of a young bear is not a regular cylindrical shape. At the proximal end, and even more at the distal end, the bone widens in a fan shape, which greatly in uences the internal cross section of cortical bone. Determining the basic frequen cies of a ute with such an internal pro le from the physical measure ments of the bone is extremely dif cult. An additional dif culty in our nd was caused by the fact that the exact length of the suspected ute is unknown, since the bone was damaged at the ends. However, we con cluded that it could not have been much longer than as it was found, since bone itself does not allow this. Changes in embouchure and strength of blowing represent a problem in determining the basic frequency of the ute. They can cause major dif ferences in the basic pitch—by a whole tone or more—in the same ute and with the same method of blowing. A range of basic tones is shown for each ute because of changes to the embouchure and strength of blowing. Empty notes represent boundary values of a speci c tone due to changes in the embouchure and strength of blowing, and lled notes represent our estimate of tones that appeared most often with speci c combinations of holes. An arrow above a note marks the direction of deviation of the marked intonation by around twenty cents, and a double arrow by around forty cents. Filled arrows (triangles) replace notes of a high penetrating whistle, which were dif cult to measure and notate. The effect of partial closing and stopping of the lower end of the instrument is marked with a vertical line under the basic note. The light elds represent combinations, which we obtained with the two holes completely preserved on the original. We obtained interesting results from testing and comparing almost identical plaster and metal reconstructions (casts). Their distal and proximal ends were processed by hand and kept as uniform as possible. The deviation of basic intonation of individual utes was surprising, assessed at more than a whole tone. Exact measurement was dif cult to perform because of the change in pitch due to the embouchure and strength of blowing. With cast metal utes, which had no hand molding, no such deviation occurred—they were almost indistinguishable. The deviation can be explained by the different internal pro les of utes from plaster and dif ferent positions against the mouth of the experimenter. Thus even small deviations can create considerable changes in the basic tone of similar instruments. Even greater deviation among utes of the same length and played in the same way can be noticed in comparing various reconstructions having similar mouthpieces (gures 15. Here, too, the internal shape and size of the mouthpiece (manner and shape of distal widening of the bone at the metaphysis and how thoroughly the spongiosa is removed) are clearly very important. A new dif culty in determining basic pitch was seen in the various pos sible ways of blowing into the ute. It follows from this that we can only guess at the more exact basic frequency of the ute. Even greater dif culties appeared when we attempted to determine the selection of sounds (possible musical scale) that could be drawn from a ute, since a change in pitch can be achieved in a number of ways: changing the embouchure and strength of blowing, partly or completely closing the lower end of the instrument, overblowing, and lengthening and shortening of the length of the instrument. We successfully used all these methods in our experiments, and they appreciably affected the pitch. Embouchure and strength of blowing had an in uence on chang ing the basic tone and had similar effects on other possible tones (gures 15. Partly closing the lower part of the ute theoretically enables a con tinuous change of pitch between closed and open instruments. With our reconstructions, we succeeded in executing small, continuous changes of tone, and the instruments quickly transformed from closed to open type (or vice versa). Such closure could also be achieved by placing the ngers at the lower end of the instrument (stopping the hole). In such a way, the tone could be precisely changed continuously downward by more than a perfect fourth. The length of the instrument could be extended in a simple way only with the hand, but this did not have much effect in 260 Drago Kunej and Ivan Turk Fig. However, it could be combined successfully with partial or complete closure of the end of the ute.

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