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Typically erectile dysfunction icd 9 effective 100mg extra super levitra, ultrasound examination will reveal signs of intrauterine growth retardation associated with features such as neural tube defect erectile dysfunction treatment muse extra super levitra 100 mg otc, exomphalos erectile dysfunction protocol video cheap 100 mg extra super levitra amex, congenital heart defects and polyhydramnios erectile dysfunction treatment can herbal remedies help order extra super levitra 100mg mastercard. In the other case Trisomy 18 was detected antenatally but the parents elected to continue. Like trisomy 18 this condition is often diagnosed through a recognizable pattern of dysmorphism and malformation. Individuals with trisomy 13 often have heart defects, brain or spinal cord abnormalities, very small or poorly developed eyes, (microphthalmia), extra fingers or toes, a cleft lip with or without a cleft palate, and hypotonia. Concerns were raised at the 20-week anomaly scan with a cleft lip and possible cardiac defect, the left side of the heart was smaller than the right side and there were multiple echogenic cardiac foci. Whilst this test does not have 100% accuracy, trisomy 13 was certainly in keeping with the anomalies detected on ultrasound scan. The pregnancy continued to livebirth of a male infant at 37 weeks’ gestation who was unfortunately to be an early neonatal death. In diandry the extra set of chromosomes is of paternal origin either from a meiotic error leading to a diploid sperm or more typically dispermic fertilization, Diandry predominates in cases of triploidy without embryos after nine weeks or in the second trimester with foetuses of relatively normal size and placental features of a partial hydatidiform mole. Digyny, (fertilization of a diploid oocyte) predominates in early miscarriages with embryos before nine weeks or in 2nd trimester loss of a fetus with marked asymmetrical growth retardation. Developmental delays, nonverbal learning disabilities, and behavioural problems are possible, although these characteristics vary among affected individuals. Di George syndrome is also known as ‘3rd & 4th Pharyngeal Pouch syndrome’ and ‘Hypoplasia of the Thymus & Parathyroid’ It overlaps clinically with ‘Conotruncal Anomaly Face syndrome’. It is characterized by neonatal hypocalcaemia which may present as tetany or seizures. A variety of associated cardiac malformations are recognized and renal anomalies are common. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome associated with a hemizygous partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. It is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, facial clefting, ‘Greek helmet’ facies and diaphragmatic hernia. Increased nuchal thickening, reduced liquor and abnormal position of both feet had been noted on ultrasound scan. The congenital malformation can be genetic random and of unknown origin but the malformation is characterized by lissencephaly. This infant, a female delivered at 36 weeks’ gestation also had a congenital pulmonary valve stenosis and an abnormality of the aortic valve. There were two cases where an unbalanced translocation of chromosome 3 were diagnosed. On both occasions an early ultrasound scan had demonstrated a cystic hygroma and small exomphalos. Later genetic studies revealed one of the parents to be a carrier of a pericentric inversion of chromosome 3. Fetal Anomaly ultrasound scanning: the development of a national programme for England. The widespread use of ultrasound has led to the erroneous belief that all major and many minor structural fetal abnormalities can be detected before birth. Indeed, some major malformation such as anencephaly are rarely missed on routine ultrasound. However prenatal diagnosis of some abnormalities is highly dependent on the resources and skills available. Isolated cleft palates are extremely difficult to identify and problems such as anal and rectal atresia are simply not amenable to prenatal diagnosis, (nor are many dysmorphic features). Megalocornea Choroideremia Male infertility due to spermatogenic failure Alagille syndrome Myocardial infarction, susceptibility to Neuroepithelioma Heme oxygenase deficiency Epilepsy (Juberg-Hellman syndrome) Agammaglobulinemia Growth control, Y-chromosome influenced Corneal dystrophy Huntington-like neurodegenerative disorder Li-Fraumeni syndrome Manic Fringe maintaining the chromosome structure. Numerous disorders and traits mapped to and customize drugs and other medical treatments to Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, type 1 Pettigrew syndrome Obesity/hyperinsulinism Graves disease, susceptibility to Debrisoquine sensitivity Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile Split hand/foot malformation, type 2 Gustavson mental retardation syndrome Pseudohypoparathyroidism, type Ia Epilepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe and benign neonatal, type 1 Polycystic kidney disease Adenylosuccinase deficiency Hypoparathyroidism Immunodeficiency, with hyper-IgM Legend McCune-Albright polyostotic fibrous dysplasia Epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple Leukodystrophy, metachromatic Autism, succinylpurinemic particular chromosomes are displayed on this poster. Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome Cone dystrophy, progressive Testicular germ cell tumor Prostate cancer susceptibility Hemophilia B Fragile X mental retardation the centromere, or constricted portion, of each chromosome. Warfarin sensitivity Epidermolysis bullosa, macular type Osseous dysplasia (male lethal), digital Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic Adrenoleukodystrophy Cancer/testis antigen Adrenomyeloneuropathy Dyskeratosis Chromosomal regions that vary in staining intensity and sometimes are Colorblindness, blue monochromatic Hemophilia A called heterochromatin (meaning “different color”). Cardiac valvular dysplasia Hunter syndrome Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy Mucopolysaccharidosis Gene Gateway Heterotopia, periventricular Intestinal pseudoobstruction, neuronal Variable regions, called stalks, that connect a very small chromosome For More Information Favism Melanoma antigens Hemolytic anemia Mental retardation-skeletal dysplasia arm (a “satellite”) to the chromosome. Listing of the 21st century Mental retardation with psychosis Von Hippel-Lindau binding protein. Department of Energy Office of Science • Medicine and the New Genetics: How genetic. Such questions – and the judgments required to answer them – are woven into the fabric of everyday experience. The study of human judgment was transformed in the 1970s, when Kahneman and Tversky introduced their “heuristics and biases” approach and challenged the dominance of strictly rational models. Their work highlighted the reflexive mental operations used to make complex problems manageable, and illuminated how the same processes can lead both to accurate and to dangerously flawed judgments. The heuristics and biases framework generated a torrent of influential research in psychology – research that reverberated widely and affected scholarship in economics, law, medicine, management, and political science. This book compiles the most influential research in the heuristic and biases tradition since the initial collection of 1982 (by Kahneman, Slovic, and Tversky). The various contributions develop and critically analyze the initial work on heuristics and biases, supplement these initial statements with emerging theory and empirical findings, and extend the reach of the framework to new real-world applications. Thomas Gilovich is Professor of Psychology at Cornell University and a member of the Cornell Center for Behavioral Economics and Decision Research. Dale Griffin is Associate Professor at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. Daniel Kahneman is Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology and Professor of Public Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public Affairs, Princeton University. First published 2002 8th printing 2009 Printed in the United States of America A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Heuristics and biases : the psychology of intuitive judgment / edited by Thomas Gilovitch, Dale Griffin, Daniel Kahneman. Representativeness and Availability 1 Extensional versus Intuitive Reasoning: the ConjunctionFallacy in Probability Judgment Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman 2 Representativeness Revisited: Attribute Substitutionin Intuitive Judgment Daniel Kahneman and Shane Frederick 3 How Alike Is It. Reynolds 5 the Availability Heuristic Revisited: Ease of Recall and Content of Recall as Distinct Sources of Information Norbert Schwarz and Leigh Ann Vaughn B. Anchoring, Contamination, and Compatibility 6 Incorporating the Irrelevant: Anchors in Judgments of Belief and Value Gretchen B. Johnson 7 Putting Adjustment Back in the Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic Nicholas Epley and Thomas Gilovich 8 Self-Anchoring in Conversation: Why Language Users Do Not Do What They “Should” Boaz Keysar and Dale J. Centerbar, and Nancy Brekke 11 Sympathetic Magical Thinking: the Contagion and Similarity “Heuristics” Paul Rozin and Carol Nemeroff 12 Compatibility Effects in Judgment and Choice Paul Slovic, Dale Griffin, and Amos Tversky C. Forecasting, Confidence, and Calibration 13 the Weighing of Evidence and the Determinants of Confidence Dale Griffin and Amos Tversky 14 Inside the Planning Fallacy: the Causes and Consequences of Optimistic Time Predictions Roger Buehler, Dale Griffin, and Michael Ross 15 Probability Judgment across Cultures J. Optimism 17 Resistance of Personal Risk Perceptions to Debiasing Interventions Neil D. Klein 18 Ambiguity and Self-Evaluation: the Role of Idiosyncratic Trait Definitions in Self Serving Assessments of Ability David Dunning, Judith A. Norms and Counterfactuals 20 Norm Theory: Comparing Reality to Its Alternatives Daniel Kahneman and Dale T. Miller 21 Counterfactual Thought, Regret, and Superstition: How to Avoid Kicking Yourself Dale T. Sloman 23 the Affect Heuristic Paul Slovic, Melissa Finucane, Ellen Peters, and Donald G. MacGregor 24 Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate. Support Theory 25 Support Theory: A Nonextensional Representation of Subjective Probability Amos Tversky and Derek J. Koehler 26 Unpacking, Repacking, and Anchoring: Advances in Support Theory Yuval Rottenstreich and Amos Tversky 27 Remarks on Support Theory: Recent Advances and Future Directions Lyle A. Alternative Perspectives on Heuristics 28 the Use of Statistical Heuristics in Everyday Inductive Reasoning Richard E. Krantz, Christopher Jepson, and Ziva Kunda 29 Feelings as Information: Moods Influence Judgments and Processing Strategies Norbert Schwarz 30 Automated Choice Heuristics Shane Frederick 31 How Good Are Fast and Frugal Heuristics. Gerd Gigerenzer, Jean Czerlinski, and Laura Martignon 32 Intuitive Politicians, Theologians, and Prosecutors: Exploring the Empirical Implications of Deviant Functionalist Metaphors Philip E.

They play many games against right-handers and learn how to impotence drugs over counter quality 100 mg extra super levitra best handle their styles impotence beavis and butthead cheap extra super levitra 100 mg otc. Right-handers erectile dysfunction virgin cheap extra super levitra 100 mg with mastercard, however erectile dysfunction doctor karachi cheap 100mg extra super levitra fast delivery, play very few games against left-handers, which may make them more vulnerable. This explains why a disproportionately high number of left-handers are found in sports where direct one-on-one action predominates. In other sports, such as golf, there are fewer left-handed players because the handedness of one player has no effect on the competition. The fact that left-handers excel in some sports suggests the possibility that they may have also had an evolutionary advantage because their ancestors may have been more successful in important skills such as hand-to-hand combat [35] (Bodmer & McKie, 1994). At this point, however, this idea remains only a hypothesis, and determinants of human handedness are yet to be fully understood. Other areas of the cortex act as association areas, responsible for integrating information. Body parts requiring the most control and dexterity take up the most space in the motor cortex. Body parts that are the most sensitive occupy the greatest amount of space in the sensory cortex. Consider your own experiences and speculate on which parts of your brain might be particularly well developed as a result of these experiences. Which brain hemisphere are you likely to be using when you search for a fork in the silverware drawer. Which brain hemisphere are you most likely to be using when you struggle to remember the name of an old friend. Do you think that encouraging left-handed children to use their right hands is a good idea. Long-term potentiation in the amygdala: A cellular mechanism of fear learning and memory. Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Self-stimulation of the brain: Its use to study local effects of hunger, sex, and drugs. Electric excitability of the cerebrum (Uber die Elektrische erregbarkeit des Grosshirns). Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. From the left to the right: How the brain compensates progressive loss of language function. Observations on visual perception after disconnexion of the cerebral hemispheres in man. Processing of basic speech acts following localized brain damage: A new light on the neuroanatomy of language. Cultural influences on handedness: Historical and contemporary theory and evidence. Right hand, left hand: the origins of asymmetry in brains, bodies, atoms, and cultures. A note on Corballis (1997) and the genetics and evolution of handedness: Developing a unified distributional model from the sex-chromosomes gene hypothesis. Family size, miscarriage-proneness, and handedness: Tests of hypotheses of the developmental instability theory of handedness. Left-handedness: Association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder. Compare and contrast the techniques that scientists use to view and understand brain structures and functions. One problem in understanding the brain is that it is difficult to get a good picture of what is going on inside it. But there are a variety of empirical methods that allow scientists to look at brains in action, and the number of possibilities has increased dramatically in recent years with the introduction of new neuroimaging techniques. In this section we will consider the various techniques that psychologists use to learn about the brain. Each of the different techniques has some advantages, and when we put them together, we begin to get a relatively good picture of how the brain functions and which brain structures control which activities. Perhaps the most immediate approach to visualizing and understanding the structure of the brain is to directly analyze the brains of human cadavers. When Albert Einstein died in 1955, his brain [1] was removed and stored for later analysis. Researcher Marian Diamond (1999) later analyzed a section of the Einstein’s cortex to investigate its characteristics. Diamond was interested in the role of glia, and she hypothesized that the ratio of glial cells to neurons was an important determinant of intelligence. However, Diamond was able to find support for only part of her research hypothesis. Although she found that Einstein’s brain had relatively more glia in all the areas that she studied than did the control group, the difference was only statistically significant in one of the areas she tested. Diamond admits a limitation in her study is that she had only one Einstein to compare with 11 ordinary men. Lesions Provide a Picture of What Is Missing An advantage of the cadaver approach is that the brains can be fully studied, but an obvious disadvantage is that the brains are no longer active. The brains of living human beings may be damaged, for instance, as a result of strokes, falls, automobile accidents, gunshots, or tumors. In rare occasions, brain lesions may be created intentionally through surgery, such as that designed to remove brain tumors or (as in split-brain patients) to reduce the effects of epilepsy. Psychologists also sometimes intentionally create lesions in animals to study the effects on their behavior. In so doing, they hope to be able to draw inferences about the likely functions of human brains from the effects of the lesions in animals. For instance, when an individual suffers a stroke, a blood clot deprives part of the brain of oxygen, killing the neurons in the area and rendering that area unable to process information. For instance, if the stroke influences the occipital lobe, then vision may suffer, and if the stroke influences the areas associated with language or speech, these functions will suffer. In fact, our earliest understanding of the specific areas involved in speech and language were gained by studying patients who had experienced strokes. It is now known that a good part of our moral reasoning abilities are located in the frontal lobe, and at least some of this understanding comes from lesion studies. For instance, consider the well-known case of Phineas Gage, a 25-year-old railroad worker who, as a result of an explosion, had an iron rod driven into his cheek and out through the top of his skull, causing major damage [2] to his frontal lobe (Macmillan, 2000). The amiable, soft-spoken Gage had become irritable, rude, irresponsible, and dishonest. Although [3] there are questions about the interpretation of this case study (Kotowicz, 2007), it did provide [4] early evidence that the frontal lobe is involved in emotion and morality (Damasio et al. More recent and more controlled research has also used patients with lesions to investigate the [5] source of moral reasoning. In one of the scenarios the participants were asked if they would be willing to kill one person in order to prevent five other people from being killed. Persons with lesions in the frontal lobe were more likely to be willing to harm one person in order to save the lives of five others than were control participants or those with lesions in other parts of the brain. Recording Electrical Activity in the Brain In addition to lesion approaches, it is also possible to learn about the brain by studying the electrical activity created by the firing of its neurons. One approach, primarily used with animals, is to place detectors in the brain to study the responses of specific neurons. Research using these techniques has found, for instance, that there are specific neurons, known as feature detectors, in [8] the visual cortex that detect movement, lines and edges, and even faces (Kanwisher, 2000). Furthermore, by following electrical impulses across the surface of the brain, researchers can observe changes over very fast time periods. The patient lies on a bed within a large cylindrical structure containing a very strong magnet. Neurons that are firing use more oxygen, and the need for oxygen increases blood flow to the area. Often, the images take the form of cross-sectional “slices” that are obtained as the magnetic field is passed across the brain. The images of these slices are taken repeatedly and are superimposed on images of the brain structure itself to show how activity changes in different brain structures over time. When the research participant is asked to engage in tasks while in the scanner.

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The Indigenous collection has rich filmic resources on a wide range of topics erectile dysfunction related to prostate order 100mg extra super levitra with mastercard, such as cultural practices impotence means buy 100mg extra super levitra mastercard, Dreaming erectile dysfunction pills cheap buy discount extra super levitra 100mg online, and representations in the media erectile dysfunction treatment vacuum constriction devices discount 100 mg extra super levitra free shipping. Australian Screen contains information about and excerpts from a vast selection of Australian feature films, documentaries, television programs, newsreels, short films, animations, and home-movies produced over the last 100 years. It also includes teachers’ notes that identify and describe the educational value of many of the film clips. The site won the Gold Communicator Awards of Excellence in 2011 for a cultural institutions website, and movie and film website, and the Silver Award of Distinction for an education website. Jake Scully, a crippled marine, has been hired to take his dead brother’s place in a scientific program that allows human minds to inhabit Na’vi bodies. Neytiri, a female Na’vi, reluctantly rescues Jake from a dangerous situation, and their growing attraction and the destructive actions of the miners leads Jake to support the Na’vi. Students could explore questions of environmental and social sustainability and identity in this visually astonishing representation of an imaginary world. Babe is a pig whose skill and intelligence leads him to become an outstanding sheepdog. A film study could draw attention to the film’s echoes of silent films, with iris closes and inter-title cards delineating individual segments. Real and artificial creatures are smoothly portrayed together and the film succeeds on many levels – its allusions will appeal to adolescents and adults as well as children. Mandy reacts badly when bullied and strikes, but has an accident when running away. Tanya ends up being taken away for shoplifting but the friendship ends with a happy letter because she has been moved to a good foster family. This should be more than useful as an adaptation and also to explore the themes of bullying, friendship and family. Without words, cameras show us the world, with an emphasis not on ‘where,’ but on ‘what’s there’. It begins with morning, natural landscapes and people at prayer before moving to images of the destruction of nature via logging, blasting and strip mining. Images of poverty, rapid urban life, and factories are followed by those of concentration camps and mass graves. But the cycle is completed with images of prayer and nature returning as a monk rings a huge bell and stars wheel across the sky. Fricke’s use of slow-motion pans and time-lapse photography make Baraka a visual odyssey – a sort of 70 mm moving postcard tour of planet Earth done with artistry in sight and sound. The music adds to the powerful effect of the film, allowing the viewer to just enjoy it as simply something beautiful, or allowing them to delve into the messages that the film portrays about religion, nature and technology. It is suggested that excerpts rather than the whole film are used in the classroom. The inspiration for this film was Gerard O’Dwyer, who plays the role of Richard and who won best male actor award. This moving and funny film is about a young man who meets and entertains a young woman at a Sydney bus stop. He travels across Asia to France in his lion shape until he finds refuge in an abandoned chateau where he plants a rose garden. The story then follows its traditional path embellished with references to rose horticulture, Persian literature and the beliefs of Islam. The novel invites comparisons with the original tale and other retellings such as Robin McKinley’s Beauty. Weaving these distinctive accounts together through generations and common characters, this powerful play challenges and provokes discussion. Inspired by her early life and her posited relationship with Thomas Lefroy, the film’s narrative centres on this rumoured romance and invites the audience to speculate on how it may have influenced her writing and her male characters. The film provides a touching and poignant love story that reminds and reinforces in the viewer the issues of social hierarchy, status and position and the plight and expectations of single women that are such concerns in her novels. This film, while taking considerable licence with the facts, nevertheless would invite much conversation and debate about Austen’s social and historical context and issues of gender and how these are reflected in her novels. The narrative tells us that without milking Belinda there will be no milk for Tom or the animals. This is a delightful tale that introduces young readers to farm animals and farm activities using effective rhyme, alliteration and repetition. Chadha engages the audience fully in her masterful story of mixed cultures, gender roles and expectations and, of course, girls’ soccer. Drawing on her own Indian cultural heritage, Chadha is able to seamlessly weave an engaging and credible narrative that explores parallel family relationships and parental expectations within diverse cultures. The audience draws these parallels by witnessing similar sequences between Jess and her mother and Jules and her mother as Jess and Jules strive for their independence and right to pursue their own paths and dreams (ie to play professional soccer). The film is an engaging expression of cultural diversity, cultural conflict and cultural interactivity as it identifies and explores the values, attitudes and rituals for specified cultures: Indian (Sikh) and English. Add to this mix the Irish soccer coach (Joe) and even more cultural questions are raised. The masterful filming and editing, such as the series of intercutting and juxtaposed shots of the wedding and the soccer match, are used to link the two ‘story’ strands and provide a commentary on adolescent identity, gender and cultural diversity. With the additional layers in the film, such as the use of footage and images of real life soccer hero, David Beckham, and the overlay of songs whose lyrics reinforce the cultural concepts being explored and challenged, this film is well worth a close study. Students in Year 8 could compare the graphic novel with the Seamus Heaney translation, especially in those sections of the novel where pictures replace words. They could also consider the idea of the super hero as portrayed in past and present texts. Beowulf was the warrior who fought Grendel, a murderous ogre who had been killing the people of King Hrothgar of Denmark. After a bitter battle Beowulf is triumphant but he also has to fight and kill Grendel’s sea hag mother before peace can return to the kingdom. Beowulf was sent home with praise and honour ringing in his ears and ruled his own kingdom for 50 years. His last battle was with a dragon that threatened his land and, while victorious, he was mortally wounded. His grieving people set his tomb on a headland so that all seafarers could see it. Students could compare this version with the graphic novel by Gareth Hinds or the computer-animated film of the poem, directed by Robert Zemeckis. But one night she doesn’t and the characters come to life, especially the bad one. The table of contents includes poems under headings such as: crazy creatures; life’s a laugh, mood and feelings, epitaphs, adventure, mystery and romance, tall stories, limericks, chants and games, life lessons and advice, and fun with words. The poems range from classical to modern, long to very short (two lines) and comical to nonsense. Authors range from the classics like Banjo Paterson, Rudyard Kipling and Spike Milligan to lesser-known poets such as Wilbur Howcroft and Stephen Whiteside. The plays deal with gender assumptions (Home Sweet Home), suicide from bullying (Sticks and Stones), emotional trauma set in a psychiatrist’s room (Why Are You Here. For example, Word Play has a narrator who links the different short scenes where the same 15 words and phrases are produced for the different settings and characters; Out of Your Mind has two people for each character, one is the character and the other is the character’s mind, indicated by the close shadowing of one on the other; Sticks and Stones uses a chorus to recreate a modern tragedy; and Why Are You Here. This is an inventive and thought-provoking set of plays, showing the powerful ways that dialogue can be manipulated in the play form. It explores a child’s everyday experiences and illustrates how to use these words in context. Set in Korea in 1951 it follows the wanderings of a young boy, Manuk, on his birthday as he makes his way home from school through his war-torn village. Amid the backdrop of crashed planes, tanks on rail cars and war planes flying overhead, he plays at being a soldier. On arriving home he finds a parcel and, thinking it is a birthday present, opens it to find the returned items of his father who has been killed in the war. Manuk’s naivety about what this parcel symbolises creates greater poignancy for the viewer. The film’s interesting and innovative animation techniques and aesthetic appeal also make it an effective short film for study. When Rowena moves to a new country town and school, she has to establish herself despite a father who has a tendency to embarrass his daughter in public. She is befriended by Amanda who can sign and whose father is different from Mr Blatt. The play explores disabilities, friendship and parent–child relationships in a humorous and sensitive way.

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The baby resists being put down by the adult by crying or trying to erectile dysfunction treatment cost in india discount 100 mg extra super levitra free shipping climb Maintaining contact back up erectile dysfunction treatment without medication buy extra super levitra 100mg online. Resistance the baby pushes impotence 40 year old discount extra super levitra 100mg fast delivery, hits impotence 20 years old order extra super levitra 100mg with amex, or squirms to be put down from the adult’s arms. Each of the four coding categories is scored by the coder from 1 (the baby makes no effort to engage in the behavior) to 7 (the baby makes a significant effort to engage in the behavior). More information about the meaning of the coding can [5] be found in Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, and Wall (1978). The results of descriptive research projects are analyzed using descriptive statistics—numbers that summarize the distribution of scores on a measured variable. The arithmetic average, or arithmetic mean, is the most commonly used measure of central tendency. It is computed by calculating the sum of all the scores of the variable and dividing this sum by the number of participants in the distribution (denoted by the letter N). This occurs when there are one or more extreme scores (known as outliers) at one end of the distribution. The single very extreme income has a disproportionate impact on the mean, resulting in a value that does not well represent the central tendency. The median is used as an alternative measure of central tendency when distributions are not symmetrical. The median is the score in the center of the distribution, meaning that 50% of the scores are greater than the median and 50% of the scores are less than the median. In our case, the median household income ($73,000) is a much better indication of central tendency than is the mean household income ($223,960). In this case the median or the mode is a better indicator of central tendency than is the mean. A final measure of central tendency, known as the mode, represents the value that occurs most frequently in the distribution. In addition to summarizing the central tendency of a distribution, descriptive statistics convey information about how the scores of the variable are spread around the central tendency. The standard deviation, symbolized as s, is the most commonly used measure of dispersion. An advantage of descriptive research is that it attempts to capture the complexity of everyday behavior. Case studies provide detailed information about a single person or a small group of people, surveys capture the thoughts or reported behaviors of a large population of people, and naturalistic observation objectively records the behavior of people or animals as it occurs naturally. Thus descriptive research is used to provide a relatively complete understanding of what is currently happening. Despite these advantages, descriptive research has a distinct disadvantage in that, although it allows us to get an idea of what is currently happening, it is usually limited to static pictures. Although descriptions of particular experiences may be interesting, they are not always transferable to other individuals in other situations, nor do they tell us exactly why specific behaviors or events occurred. For instance, descriptions of individuals who have suffered a stressful event, such as a war or an earthquake, can be used to understand the individuals’ reactions to the event but cannot tell us anything about the long-term effects of the stress. And because there is no comparison group that did not experience the stressful situation, we cannot know what these individuals would be like if they hadn’t had the stressful experience. Correlational Research: Seeking Relationships Among Variables In contrast to descriptive research, which is designed primarily to provide static pictures, correlational research involves the measurement of two or more relevant variables and an assessment of the relationship between or among those variables. For instance, the variables of height and weight are systematically related (correlated) because taller people generally weigh more than shorter people. In the same way, study time and memory errors are also related, because the more time a person is given to study a list of words, the fewer errors he or she will make. When there are two variables in the research design, one of them is called the predictor variable and the other the outcome variable. A point is plotted for each individual at the intersection of his or her scores for the two variables. When the association between the variables on the scatter plot can be easily approximated with a straight line, as in parts (a) and (b) of Figure 2. When the straight line indicates that individuals who have above-average values for one variable also tend to have above-average values for the other variable, as in part (a), the relationship is said to be positive linear. Examples of positive linear relationships include those between height and weight, between education and income, and between age and mathematical abilities in children. In each case people who score higher on one of the variables also tend to score higher on the other variable. Negative linear relationships, in contrast, as shown in part (b), occur when above-average values for one variable tend to be associated with below-average values for the other variable. Examples of negative linear relationships include those between the age of a child and the number of diapers the child uses, and between practice on and errors made on a learning task. In these cases people who score higher on one of the variables tend to score lower on the other variable. Relationships between variables that cannot be described with a straight line are known as nonlinear relationships. In this case there is no relationship at all between the two variables, and they are said to be independent. For instance, part (d) shows the type of relationship that frequently occurs between anxiety and performance. Increases in anxiety from low to moderate levels are associated with performance increases, whereas increases in anxiety from moderate to high levels are associated with decreases in performance. Relationships that change in direction and thus are not described by a single straight line are called curvilinear relationships. Note that the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between variables that have curvilinear relationships will likely be close to zero. The direction of the linear relationship is indicated by the sign of the correlation coefficient. The strength of the linear relationship is indexed by the distance of the correlation coefficient from zero (its absolute value). Because the Pearson correlation coefficient only measures linear relationships, variables that have curvilinear relationships are not well described by r, and the observed correlation will be close to zero. It is also possible to study relationships among more than two measures at the same time. A research design in which more than one predictor variable is used to predict a single outcome variable is analyzed through multiple regression(Aiken & West, [6] 1991). Multiple regression is a statistical technique, based on correlation coefficients among variables, that allows predicting a single outcome variable from more than one predictor variable. The use of multiple regression analysis shows an important advantage of correlational research designs—they can be used to make predictions about a person’s likely score on an outcome variable. An important limitation of correlational research designs is that they cannot be used to draw conclusions about the causal relationships among the measured variables. Consider, for instance, a researcher who has hypothesized that viewing violent behavior will cause increased aggressive play in children. He has collected, from a sample of fourth-grade children, a measure of how many violent television shows each child views during the week, as well as a measure of how aggressively each child plays on the school playground. From his collected data, the researcher discovers a positive correlation between the two measured variables. Although the researcher is tempted to assume that viewing violent television causes aggressive play, Figure 2. One alternate possibility is that the causal direction is exactly opposite from what has been hypothesized. Perhaps children who have behaved aggressively at school develop residual excitement that leads them to want to watch violent television shows at home: Figure 2. A common causal variable is a variable that is not part of the research hypothesis but that causes both the predictor and the outcome variable and thus produces the observed correlation between them. In our example a potential common-causal variable is the discipline style of the children’s parents. Parents who use a harsh and punitive discipline style may produce children who both like to watch violent television and who behave aggressively in comparison to children whose parents use less harsh discipline: Figure 2. When the predictor and outcome variables are both caused by a common-causal variable, the observed relationship between them is said to be spurious. A spurious relationship is a relationship between two variables in which a common-causal variable produces and “explains away” the relationship.

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In analyzing clashes erectile dysfunction mental 100mg extra super levitra otc, previous work de ned a damaging clash as any side-chain that has at least 3 van der Waals overlaps (of any degree) with other atoms circumcision causes erectile dysfunction buy cheap extra super levitra 100 mg. Similarly impotence by age order 100mg extra super levitra with visa, voids were considered damaging when they caused the creation of voids of volume > 275A erectile dysfunction treatment in singapore order extra super levitra 100 mg otc, assuming3 no compensatory movement within the protein structure. The MutModel pro gram is used in both clash and void analysis and parameters (step-size and tolerance) used in searching side-chain positions were optimised by modelling known mutant structures. Data derived from other external resources (including the Catalytic Site Atlas (Porter et al. It may also be bene cial to consider the protein in a wider context, for example its role in known pathways (Kanehisa et al. At the very least, estimates of base change substitution rates, calculated from a basic understanding of biochemistry and mutagenesis mechanisms, could allow protein level data to be ‘nor malised’ such that genomic effects are removed from analysis at the protein level. Such effects have been completely disregarded in this thesis, but are being investigated by another member of the group. Application of machine learning techniques exploit the predictive power of all of these indi vidual features, resulting in a very sensitive and accurate method for classifying previously unseen mutations as disease-causing or neutral. The fully-cross-validated re ects performance on a novel mutation/protein for which no train ing have been done, partial-cross-validated is still fully cross validated in the conventional sense (see section 6. However predictions based on struc tural information limit the range of mutations that can be covered by this predictor. This will become less of an issue as protein structures become available for more proteins over time. But a dataset of annotated neutral mutations (such as HumVar) is bound to be much smaller; pathogenic ity prediction clearly bene ts from large amounts of data. To make use of all the available mutation information in training the predictor, multiple predictors were used and a jury vote was taken. If one can characterise the speci c reason that a mutated protein is not able to function properly, a counteractive rescue mechanism could be developed. Such compounds may form the basis of future P53-de cient cancer therapies, or indeed therapy for any disease caused by structurally-destabilising mutations. However, the reason for removal of these badly performing models must be justi ed from a protein structural rather than a prediction perspective. There are multiple ways to achieve further improved prediction performance and results: (i) Incorporating more data in the training process, once they become available; (ii) Inves tigate the features used in the training and select the most effective ones (to help with the relatively small HumVar dataset size); (iii) Feature combination and constructions. The eld is currently saturated with predictors of pathogenicity, more meta-predictors are needed. Combining several good predictors will always outperform a single predictor, it is important to choose the highest performing predictors, with least overlap in attributes used to predict. While the coverage of the method is currently somewhat limited by the need for a structure of the protein, investigation of the use of modelled structures is also planned. However, cur rently it is not known how well this will work given the detailed structural analysis. It is proposed that different predictors would be trained for different sets of models having different ranges of sequences identity with the templates used in modelling. However clinically relevant proteins tend to be key targets for structural studies, and as more structures become available, the number of mutants mapped to structure will increase, improving the coverage of the method. In addition, more structural data will allow the machine learning methods to be trained and tested with more data. Alsod: A user-friendly online bioin formatics tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genetics. What can disul de bonds tell us about protein energet ics, function and folding: Simulations and bioninformatics analysis. Mutational analysis of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene in 23 familial and 69 sporadic cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Belgium. Contributions of hydrogen bonds of thr 157 to the thermodynamic stability of phage t4 lysozyme. A nucleotide change at a splice junction in the human beta-globin gene is associated with beta 0-thalassemia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 78. Biochemical variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehy drogenase giving rise to congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic disease. Deciphering the message in protein sequences: tolerance to amino acid substitutions. Charmm: A program for macromolecular energy, minimization, and dynamics calculations. Functional annotations improve the predictive score of human disease-related mutations in proteins. The parkinson’s disease protein dj-1 is neuroprotective due to cysteine-sul nic acid-driven mitochondrial localization. Proceed ings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101. Predicting the insurgence of human genetic diseases associated to single point protein mutations with support vector machines and evolutionary information. Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Organization and sequence of human cardiac myosin binding protein c gene (mybpc3) and identi cation of mutations predicted to produce truncated proteins in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The MetaCyc database of metabolic path ways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of pathway/genome databases. Congruency in the prediction of pathogenic missense muta tions: state-of-the-art web-based tools. Packing is a key selection factor in the evolution of protein hy drophobic cores. BreakDancer: an algorithm for high-resolution mapping of genomic structural variation. Prediction by graph theoretic measures of structural effects in proteins arising from non-synonymous single nu cleotide polymorphisms. Crystal structure of a p53 tumor suppressor dna complex: understanding tumorigenic mutations. Time for a uni ed system of mutation description and reporting: a review of locus-speci c mutation databases. Large-scale analysis of non synonymous coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms. Snpwatch: Genetic variants near tumor suppressor genes may increase risk for brain and skin cancer. Corsaro A, Thellung S, Bucciarelli T, Scotti L, Chiovitti K, Villa V, D’Arrigo C, Aceto A, Florio T. High hydrophobic amino acid exposure is responsible of the neurotoxic effects induced by E200K or D202N disease-related mutations of the human prion protein. Analysis of void volumes in proteins and application to stabil ity of the p53 tumour suppressor protein. Se quence and structure signatures of cancer mutation hotspots in protein kinases. Response of a protein structure to cavity-creating mutations and its relation to the hydrophobic effect. Deterministic features of side-chain main-chain hydrogen bonds in globular protein structures. Use of bioinformatics tools for the annotation of disease-associated mutations in animal models. Cosmic: mining complete cancer genomes in the catalogue of somatic mutations in cancer. A peptide that binds and stabilizes p53 core domain: Chaperone strategy for rescue of oncogenic mutants. Gabanyi M, Adams P, Arnold K, Bordoli L, Carter L, Flippen-Andersen J, Gifford L, Haas J, Kouranov A, McLaughlin W, Micallef D, Minor W, Shah R, Schwede T, Tao Y, Westbrook J, Zimmerman M, Berman H. The structural biology knowledgebase: a portal to protein structures, sequences, functions, and methods. Electrostatic clustering and free energy calcu lations provide a foundation for protein design and optimization.

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