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Categorizing Recommendations with an Updated Review of the Evidence Recommendations were first categorized by whether or not they were based on an updated review of the evidence skin care yang aman purchase 0.05% tretinoin cream mastercard. If evidence had been reviewed acne xylitol cheap tretinoin cream 0.025% mastercard, recommendations were categorized as “New-added skin care zinc tretinoin cream 0.025% overnight delivery,” “New-replaced acne definition purchase 0.025% tretinoin cream fast delivery,” “Not changed,” “Amended,” or “Deleted. These recommendations could have also included clinically significant changes to the previous version. Because the 2010 recommendations inherently needed to be modified at least slightly to include this language, the “Not changed” category was not used. This occurred if the evidence supporting the recommendations was out of date, to the extent that there was no longer any basis to recommend a particular course of care and/or new evidence suggests a shift in care, rendering recommendations in the previous version of the guideline obsolete. Recommendations could also have been categorized as “Not reviewed, Deleted” if they were determined to be out of scope. The categories for the recommendations included in the 2017 version of the guideline are noted in the Recommendations. During this time, the Champions and Work Group also made additional revisions to the algorithms, as necessary. The Work Group also produced a set of guideline toolkit materials which included a provider summary, pocket cards, and a patient summary. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Average Impact HbA1c Potential for on Adverse Drug Class Reduction Hypoglycemia Weight Clinical Considerations Events/Side Effects Cost Acarbose 0. Average values shown; response is dependent on other factors such as whether drug therapy naive, baseline HbA1c, concomitant anti-glycemic therapy, etc. Clinical considerations and adverse events/side effects are not intended to be inclusive of all information, but rather to highlight some of the key points. Refer to agency pricing sources for current cost information; lower pricing within a class may be available for agency preferred agents, or as new generics become available. Amylin analog Average HbA1c Potential for Impact on Adverse Events/Side Drug Class Reduction Hypoglycemia Weight Clinical Considerations Effects Cost Pramlintide 0. Biguanides Average HbA1c Potential for Impact on Adverse Events /Side Drug Class Reduction Hypoglycemia Weight Clinical Considerations Effects Cost Metformin 1 1. Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors Average Impact HbA1c Potential for on Drug Class Reduction Hypoglycemia Weight Clinical Considerations Adverse Events/Side Effects Cost Sitagliptin 0. Glucagon-like 1 peptide receptor agonists Average HbA1c Potential for Impact on Adverse Events/Side Drug Class Reduction Hypoglycemia Weight Clinical Considerations Effects Cost Exenatide 1 1. Meglitinides Average HbA1c Potential for Impact on Adverse Events/Side Drug Class Reduction Hypoglycemia Weight Clinical Considerations Effects Cost Nateglinide 0. Sulfonylureas Average HbA1c Potential for Impact on Adverse Events/Side Drug Class Reduction Hypoglycemia Weight Clinical Considerations Effects Cost Second 1 -1. Thiazolidinediones Average HbA1c Potential for Impact on Adverse Events/Side Drug Class Reduction Hypoglycemia Weight Clinical Considerations Effects Cost Pioglitazone 1 – 1. All combinations have not been studied at this time and evidence is rapidly evolving. However, recruitment focused on eliciting a range of perspectives likely to be relevant and informative in the guideline development process. Patients were not incentivized for their participation or reimbursed for travel expenses. The facilitator from Lewin led the discussion using interview questions prepared by the Work Group as a general guide to elicit the most important information from the patients regarding their experiences and views about their treatment and overall care. Given the limited time and the range of interests of the focus group participants, not all of the listed questions were addressed. The following concepts are aspects of care that are important to these patients, which emerged from the focus group discussion. Each of these themes was an important and needed aspect of participants’ healthcare. Using shared decision-making, consider all treatment options and develop a treatment plan based on the balance of risks, benefits, and patient-specific goals, values, and preferences • Use shared decision-making to develop an individualized treatment plan; discuss pros and cons. Guide patients for the self-management of their diabetes and glucose monitoring, including benefits and risks, and their expectations • Guide and educate patients on the self-management of their diabetes. Educate and involve family caregivers and co-workers in accordance with patient preferences regarding core knowledge of diabetes management • Foster family involvement in shared decision-making and patient support in accordance with patient preferences and in a way that is beneficial to the patient. We recommend shared decision-making to enhance Additional References: patient knowledge and satisfaction. We recommend that all patients with diabetes should be I [34-38,40-44] Strong for Reviewed, New-replaced offered ongoing individualized diabetes self-management None Additional Reference: education via various modalities tailored to their [39] preferences, learning needs and abilities based on available resources. We suggest offering one or more types of bidirectional C [45-49] Weak for Reviewed, New-replaced telehealth interventions (typically health communication None via computer, telephone or other electronic means) None involving licensed independent practitioners to patients None selected by their primary care provider as an adjunct to None usual patient care. We recommend setting an HbA1c target range based on N/A [53-61] Strong for Reviewed, New-added absolute risk reduction of significant microvascular Additional References: complications, life expectancy, patient preferences and [50-52,62-66] social determinants of health. The strength of recommendations were rated as follows: A a strong recommendation that the clinicians provide the intervention to eligible patients; B a recommendation that clinicians provide (the service) to eligible patients; C no recommendation for or against the routine provision of the intervention is made; D recommendation is made against routinely providing the intervention; I the conclusion is that the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against routinely providing the intervention. For new recommendations, developed by the 2017 guideline Work Group, the literature cited corresponds directly to the 2016 evidence review. For these “modified” recommendations, the evidence column indicates “additional evidence,” which can refer to either 1) studies that support the recommendation and which were identified through the 2016 evidence review, or 2) relevant studies that support the recommendation, but which were not systematically identified through a literature review. We recommend developing an individualized glycemic C Additional References: Strong for Reviewed, Amended management plan, based on the provider’s appraisal of None [26,31,67] the risk-benefit ratio and patient preferences. We recommend assessing patient characteristics such as N/A [6] Strong for Reviewed, New-added race, ethnicity, chronic kidney disease, and non-glycemic Additional References: factors. We recommend an individualized target range for HbA1c A [53,54,56-61,77,79-81] Strong for Reviewed, New-replaced taking into account individual preferences, presence or Additional References: absence of microvascular complications, and presence or [64,78,82-85] severity of comorbid conditions (See Table 2). We recommend that in patients with type 2 diabetes, a N/A [53,54,56-61,77,79-81] Strong for Reviewed, New-added range of HbA1c 7. We suggest that providers be aware that HbA1c N/A [86] Weak for Reviewed, New-added variability is a risk factor for microvascular and Additional Reference: macrovascular outcomes. We recommend a Mediterranean diet if aligned to N/A [92,94,95] Strong for Reviewed, New-added patient’s values and preferences. We recommend a nutrition intervention strategy [91-93,96,97,99] N/A Strong for Reviewed, New-added reducing percent of energy from carbohydrate to Additional Reference: 14-45%per day and/or foods with lower glycemic index [98] in patients with type 2 diabetes who do not choose the Mediterranean diet. We recommend against targeting blood glucose levels A [100,101,103,104] Strong against Reviewed, Amended <110 mg/dL for all hospitalized patients with type 2 Additional References: diabetes receiving insulin. We recommend insulin be adjusted to maintain a blood A [103,106,108-112,114] Strong for Reviewed, Amended glucose level between 110 and 180 mg/dL for patients Additional References: with type 2 diabetes in critically ill patients or those with [107,113] acute myocardial infarction. We recommend against the use of split mixed insulin N/A [115,116] Strong against Reviewed, New-added regimen for all hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. We suggest a regimen including basal insulin and short N/A [111,114,117] Weak for Reviewed, New-added acting meal time or basal insulin and correction insulin for non-critically ill hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes. We suggest providing medication education and I [120,121] Weak for Reviewed, Amended diabetes survival skills to patients before hospital Additional References: discharge. We recommend performing a comprehensive foot risk None [122-125] Strong for Not Reviewed, Amended assessment annually. We recommend referring patients with limb-threatening None [122,126-131] Strong for Not Reviewed, Amended conditions to the appropriate level of care for evaluation and treatment. We suggest screening for retinopathy at least every B Weak for Not Reviewed, Amended other year (biennial screening) for patients who have I Additional References: had no retinopathy on all previous examinations. More [134-137] frequent retinal examinations in such patients should be considered when risk factors associated with an increased rate of progression of retinopathy are present. We recommend that all females with pre-existing None Strong for Not Reviewed, Amended diabetes or personal history of diabetes and who are of Additional Reference: reproductive potential be provided contraceptive [138] options education and education on the benefit of optimizing their glycemic control prior to attempting to conceive. We recommend that all females with pre-existing None Strong for Not Reviewed, Amended diabetes or personal history of diabetes who are Additional Reference: planning pregnancy be educated about the safest [138] options of diabetes management during the pregnancy and referred to a maternal fetal medicine provider (when available) before, or as early as possible, once pregnancy is confirmed. D B 2 the pediatric diabetic team should include a pediatric None Not reviewed, Deleted endocrinologist, if available, and/or a pediatrician, certified diabetes educator, registered nurse, registered dietitian, and social worker, all with expertise and specialized training in the comprehensive care of children with diabetes. D C 1 All female patients with pre-existing diabetes and reproductive None Not reviewed, Amended Recommendation 24 potential should be educated about contraceptive options, and strongly encouraged to plan and prepare for pregnancy, and to optimize their glycemic control prior to attempting to conceive. D C 2 Women with diabetes who are planning pregnancy should be None Not reviewed, Amended Recommendation 25 educated about the different options of diabetes management during the pregnancy and referred to maternal fetal medicine provider before, or as early as possible, once pregnancy is confirmed. D E 2 the urgency of medical treatment, including the necessity for None Not reviewed, Deleted hospitalization, will depend upon the presence of ketoacidosis, dehydration, hyperosmolarity, infections, and other life threatening conditions. If such circumstances are identified, involvement of behavioral health, social services, and case management professionals may enhance patient compliance with treatment and follow-up.

As highlighted in the previous section skin care 3-step purchase tretinoin cream 0.05% line, there are many possible contributors to skin care videos purchase tretinoin cream 0.05% on-line the development of challenging behaviors skin care store generic tretinoin cream 0.025% without prescription. It is important to skin care x discount 0.05% tretinoin cream overnight delivery investigate and evaluate these, but also to take action sooner rather than later, since many behaviors can become increasingly intense and harder to change as time goes on. Often a necessary approach to managing behavior involves a combination of addressing underlying physical or mental health concerns, and using the behavioral and educational supports to teach replacement skills and self-regulation. There is no magic pill, but there are a number of strategies that can often be helpful. The use of Positive Behavior Supports is more than just a politically correct approach to behavior management. The alternative is usually punishment, which decreases the likelihood of a behavior by taking something away (such as removing a favorite toy) or doing something unpleasant (yelling, spanking. It is worth noting that to continue to be effective and maintain improvements, positive supports and feedback need to be ongoing as well. Such approaches have been demonstrated to be ineffective in producing durable changes in people’s behavior and do not improve to quality of their lives. When several challenging behaviors exist, it is important to establish priorities. You may want to first target behaviors that are particularly dangerous, or skills that would help to improve situations across several behavioral scenarios. A non-verbal child is not likely to speak in full sentences overnight, but if learning to hold up a ‘take a break’ card when he needs to leave the table allows him to exit, and keeps him from throwing his plate, that is a huge success. A plan for you and your team should meet four essential elements: I Clarity: Information about the plan, expectations and procedures are clear to the individual, family, staff and any other team members. I Consistency: Team and family members are on the same page with interventions and approaches, and strive to apply the same expectations and rewards. I Simplicity: Supports are simple, practical and accessible so that everyone on the team, including the family, can be successful in making it happen. If you don’t understand or cannot manage a complicated proposed behavior intervention plan, speak up! I Continuation: Even as behavior improves, it is important to keep the teaching and the positive supports in place to continue to help your loved one develop good habits and more adaptive skills. Please recognize that many skills take time to develop, and that changes in behavior require ongoing supports to be There are increasing numbers of tools and successful. In some cases, especially when you are ignoring a apps for behavioral intervention tracking that behavior that used to ‘work’ for your child, behavior may get are portable and simple to use. It can help parents and caregivers appreciate that they are making small yet meaningful changes in their lives and the lives of the individual they care for. Setting Realistic Behavioral Goals: Setting goals allows us to objectively measure progress toward an identified desired outcome. It also allows caregivers and parents to ask themselves, “What behavioral changes would really make the greatest improvements in our lives together For instance, it may be more important to address a behavior such as throwing things during a classroom activity than to address that person’s tendency to stand up during meals. A-B-C data often indicates that screaming has the function of attention, because attention from others is a common (and usually natural) consequence. But it may be that screaming is triggered by painful reflux and attention is not the true function. Tracking and interpreting the data is important since it may help to show that more investigation is needed, and the plan may need to be adjusted to be effective. Information on supports for teaching behavior management can be found in the Autism Treatment Network’s An Introduction to Behavioral Health Treatments and Applied Behavior Analysis; A Parent’s Guide. In the end, you are trying to teach your child that life is better, and that he can get what he needs, without having to resort to challenging behaviors. The suggestions below are strategies to help make individuals with autism feel more comfortable and more empowered. You and your team will need to tune in, learning to recognize the signs of increasing tension, anxiety or frustration that eventually lead to challenging behaviors. Often there is a ramping up, or escalation period, and learning to recognize that early and using many of the approaches here can help to calm a situation and prevent behavioral outbursts. Sometimes these signs may be very subtle—red ears, a tapping foot, heavier breathing, higher pitched speech—but it is essential that everyone on the team responds to the importance of tuning in and working towards de-escalation. If possible, try to adjust or avoid situations that are triggers for challenging behavior. Below are some things to consider when working to create a more successful environment: I Organize and provide structure: Provide clear and consistent visual schedules, calendars, consistent routines, etc. I Inform transitions and changes: Recognize that changes can be extremely unsettling, especially when they are unexpected. Refer to a schedule, use countdown timers, give warnings about upcoming changes, etc. I Use Visual Supports: Pictures, text, video modeling and other visuals are best for visual learners, but they are also critical because they provide information that stays. I Provide a safe place and teach when to use it: A calming room or corner, and/or objects or activities that help to calm. I Remove or dampen distracting or disturbing stimuli: Replace flickering fluorescent lights, use headphones to help block noise, avoid high traffic times, etc. I Pair companions or staff appropriately for challenging activities or times: Some people are more calming than others in certain situations. If going to the store with dad works better than with mom, focus on that and celebrate successes. I Consider structural changes to your home or yard: these changes might address some of the specifics of your situation to increase independence or reduce the risks when outbursts occur. Making Homes that W ork includes a range of potential changes that can be made to reduce property damage, improve safety, and increase choice and independence. There needs to be enough room around the toilet so people don’t feel too confined. It is really helpful if the space is warm and you address other types of sensations around the toileting experience. For example, is it cold, is there a fan running, is the light too bright, or not bright enough Even the best-laid plans don’t always work in every situation or at the necessary speed. Despite proactive strategies, particularly challenging times and stressful situations can get beyond our control. He finds many situations difficult, those around them about their child’s special needs and some including this one. Right now, we are doing a treatment plan recommended by our therapist, of the behavioral situations that might arise. This includes not giving attention to my child when he is acting out in order to helpful to let others know what is going on so that they can also discourage it. If you have any questions, be observers and help provide helpful input about your child. The following resources have suggestions for families, as well as information that can be shared with local law enforcement and first responders. They can often be helpful in building a sense of pride in accomplishments and personal responsibility, and a sense of what is expected. This will reduce the anxiety and reactivity that results in aggression or other behaviors. Some helpful strategies: I Celebrate and build strengths and successes: Tell him what he does well and what you like. Strive to give positive feedback much more frequently than any correction or negative feedback. I Provide clear expectations of behavior: Show or tell your child what you expect of him using visual aids, photographs or video models. Use a larger plate and offer a spoon to allow him to be neater at the dinner table. I Ignore the challenging behavior: Do your best to keep the challenging behavior from serving as his way of communicating or winning.


Research shows that the social determinants of health — such as quality housing skin care 3 months before marriage 0.025% tretinoin cream free shipping, adequate employment and income acne x factor purchase 0.025% tretinoin cream overnight delivery, food security skin care 90210 buy tretinoin cream 0.05% online, education zone stop acne - generic tretinoin cream 0.025%, and social support systems — infuence individual health as much as health behaviors and access to clinical care. System Navigation System navigation refers to an individual’s ability to traverse fragmented social-services and health care systems in order to receive the necessary benefts and supports to improve health outcomes. Quantitative Qualitative Themes Indicators No quantitative People unsure where to start in trying to improve health indicators used in Filling out multiple forms overwhelming to those new to the health care system analysis for this Automated phone systems stressful and difficult to navigate for those unfamiliar health need with the health care system Many unaware what services they are eligible for Limited understanding of how to utilize newly acquired insurance Needing insurance to approve medical services confusing Many needing advocates to navigate the health and human services systems Medical terminology confusing to many Need navigators that can connect families to services Health care systems fragmented and difficult to navigate Silos between city and county services as barriers Health care language complex and overwhelming to some 5. Injury and Disease Prevention and Management Knowledge is important for individual health and well-being, and eforts aimed at injury and disease prevention are powerful vehicles to improve community health. When community residents lack adequate information on how to prevent, manage, and control their health conditions, those conditions tend to worsen. Prevention eforts focus on reducing cases of injury and infectious disease control. Safe and Violence-Free Environment Feeling safe in one’s home and community are fundamental to overall health. Further, research has demonstrated that individuals exposed to violence in their homes, the community, and schools are more likely to experience depression and anxiety and demonstrate more aggressive, violent behavior. Active Living and Healthy Eating Physical activity and eating a healthy diet are important for overall health and well-being. Frequent physical activity is vital for prevention of disease and maintenance of a strong and healthy heart and mind. When access to healthy foods is challenging for community residents, many turn to unhealthy foods that are convenient, afordable, and readily available. Communities experiencing social vulnerability and poor health outcomes are often overloaded with fast food and other establishments where unhealthy food is sold. Quantitative Indicators Qualitative Themes Cancer Mortality Healthy food unaffordable Diabetes Mortality Food deserts prolific in low-income communities Heart Disease Mortality Unhealthy food choices leading to many chronic diseases Hypertension Mortality Needing more nutrition education in community Stroke Mortality Obesity continuing to rise Cancer Female Breast People unaware of how to prepare/cook healthy, fresh foods Cancer Colon and Rectum Diabetes Prevalence Cancer Prostate Limited Access to Healthy Food Physical Inactivity Adult Obesity 8. Access and Functional Needs – Transportation and Physical Disability Functional needs include indicators related to transportation and disability. Having access to transportation services to support individual mobility is a necessity of daily life. Without transportation, individuals struggle to meet their basic needs, including those needs that promote and support a healthy life. The number of people with disabilities also is an important indicator for community health and must be examined to ensure that all community members have access to necessities for a high quality of life. Cultural Competence Cultural competence refers to the ability of those in health and human services, including health care, social services, and law enforcement, to deliver services that meet an individual’s social, cultural, and language needs. The lack of cultural competence in health and human services, including health care, has been identifed as a common barrier to accessing services as individuals are reluctant to put themselves in situations where they may have limited communication capacities, experience discrimination, or face a lack of appreciation for their cultural norms. Quantitative Indicators Qualitative Themes No quantitative indicators Language barriers when trying to access health care and when navigating the system used in analysis for this Undocumented residents fearing deportation health need Homophobia and racism in the health care system creating barriers County workers treating minorities with disrespect 10. Access to Specialty and Extended Care Extended care services, which include specialty care, are care provided in a particular branch of medicine and focused on the treatment of a particular disease. Primary and specialty care go hand in hand, and without access to specialists, such as endocrinologists, cardiologists, and gastroenterologists, community residents are often left to manage chronic diseases, including diabetes and high blood pressure, on their own. In addition to specialty care, extended care refers to care extending beyond primary care services that is needed in the community to support overall physical health and wellness, including skilled-nursing facilities, hospice care, and in-home health care. Groups can be defned by a number of characteristics, including (but not limited to) race, ethnicity, immigrant status, disability, age, gender, sexual orientation, income, and geographic location. The fgure below describes populations identifed through qualitative data analysis that were indicated as experiencing health disparities. Interview participants were asked: “What specifc groups of community members experience health issues the most Figure 1: Populations experiencing disparities across all regions | 12 | 2019 Community Health Needs Assessment of Sacramento County Regions of Sacramento County Sacramento County is a diverse county comprised of many communities, each with unique attributes and characteristics that infuence community health. Primary data collection included interviews with community health experts and community residents that lived and worked in the communities within these regions, thus providing a richer and more robust understanding of each community’s unique features. When available, secondary data were collected and analyzed within each region as well. Figure 2: Sacramento County map with designated regions the following sections give more detailed information and fndings that are unique to each region. To begin, a prioritized list of signifcant health needs unique to each region is displayed. Communities of Concern were identifed through a combination of primary and secondary data. Findings for Each Region Prioritized Signifcant Health Needs by Region While a goal of the assessment was to identify the health needs of Sacramento County as a whole, it was also important to identify and prioritize health needs for the multiple communities within the county. Health need identifcation and prioritization for the county overall was based on all qualitative data collected across the county. However, health need identifcation and prioritization for each region was based on qualitative data collected only within that particular region. This resulted in diferences between the health needs identifed and prioritization for the entire county, and those identifed and prioritized for each region, as these fndings were based on a diferent set of community voices. After each region’s health needs were identifed, they were also prioritized for each region based on an analysis of primary data sources that mentioned the health need as a priority. The health needs are listed in the frst column, and the prioritization of that particular need, if applicable, is listed in the column for each region. These are shown in Figure 5 and described in Table 4 with the census population provided for each. These are noted in Table 7, with the census population provided for each, and they are displayed in Figure 8. These are noted in Table 10, with the census population provided for each, and they are displayed in Figure 11. These are noted in Table 13, with the census population provided for each, and they are displayed in Figure 14. Census Bureau) Themes from Primary Data Table 14: Themes from Primary Data, South Region Signifcant Health Need Primary Data Themes Access to Mental/Behavioral/ Substance abuse and violence significant issues in community Substance-Abuse Services Complexity of mental health issues growing Access to Quality Primary Care Need more services in Delta, limited options Health Services High housing costs leaving limited money for healthy food Active Living and Healthy Eating Unsafe communities limiting youth outdoor activities Need improved parks Substance abuse and violence significant issues in community Poor police-community relationship Safe and Violence-Free Dangerous drivers on streets Environment Slow response times by law enforcement Limited safe places for youth Human trafficking a growing issue Distances to access services a barrier Access and Functional Needs Lack of transportation a barrier to patients seeking care Youth needing better access to college School district not adequately preparing students for college Injury and Disease Prevention and College too expensive Management Too much focus by educators on test scores Focus on prevention a major health need System Navigation People unaware what services they qualify for the community’s lack of trust in health care providers Health care complicated and not fully understood by many Community very diverse, multitude of languages spoken Cultural Competency South Sacramento over-policed Inaccurate stereotypes and assumptions about community Can’t find health care interpreters for some languages | 26 | 2019 Community Health Needs Assessment of Sacramento County Resources Potentially Available to Meet the Signifcant Health Needs In all, 665 resources that were potentially available to meet the identifed signifcant health needs were identifed in the Sacramento County area. Examination of the resources revealed the following numbers of resources for each signifcant health need as shown in Table 15. Table 15: Resources Potentially Available to Meet Signifcant Health Needs in Priority Order for Sacramento County Signifcant Health Need (in Priority Order) Number of Resources Access to quality primary health care services 74 Access to mental/behavioral/substance-abuse services 97 Access to basic needs such as housing, jobs, and food 116 System navigation 42 Injury and disease prevention and management 90 Safe and violence-free environment 57 Access to active living and healthy eating 82 Access to meeting functional needs (transportation and physical mobility) 7 Cultural competency 56 Access to specialty and extended care 44 Total Resources 665 For more specifc examination of resources by signifcant health need and by geographic location, as well as the detailed method for identifying these, see the technical section. It provides an overall health and social examination of Sacramento County and the needs of community members living in areas of the county experiencing health disparities. Each indicator value for Sacramento County was compared to the California state benchmark. Indicators where performance was worse in the county than in the state are highlighted. Length of Life Table 16: Length of life indicators compared to state benchmarks Indicators Description Sacramento California Early Life Infant Mortality Infant deaths per 1,000 live births 5. The frst is a conceptual model that expresses the theoretical understanding of community health used in the analysis. This understanding is important because it provides the framework underpinning the collection of primary and secondary data. It is the tool used to ensure that the results are based on a rigorous understanding of those factors that infuence the health of a community. The second model is a process model that describes the various stages of the analysis. Conceptual Model the conceptual model used in this needs assessment is shown in Figure 21. This model organizes populations’ individual health-related characteristics in terms of how they relate to up or downstream health and health-disparities factors. In this model, health outcomes (quality and length of life) are understood to result from the infuence of health factors describing interrelated individual, environmental, and community characteristics, which in turn are infuenced by underlying policies and programs. This model was used to guide the selection of secondary indicators in this analysis as well as to express in general how these upstream health factors lead to the downstream health outcomes. It also suggests that poor health outcomes within Sacramento can be improved through policies and programs that address the health factors contributing to them. This conceptual model is a slightly modifed version of the County Health Rankings Model used by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.

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The dagger and asterisk system of dual classification for certain diagnostic statements acne 60 year old woman 0.025% tretinoin cream overnight delivery, introduced in the Ninth Revision acne jensen boots tretinoin cream 0.05% for sale, has been retained and extended acne brush cheap 0.025% tretinoin cream with mastercard, with the asterisk axis being contained in homogeneous categories at the three-character level acne- cheap 0.025% tretinoin cream with visa. This contains the Report of the International Conference for the Tenth Revision, the classification itself at the three and four-character levels, the classification of the morphology of neoplasms, special tabulation lists for mortality and morbidity, definitions, and the nomenclature regulations. It also includes the historical material formerly presented in the introduction to Volume 1. This presents the index itself with an introduction and expanded instructions on its use. Inclusion terms Within the three and four-character rubrics, there are usually listed a number of other diagnostic terms. These are known as "inclusion terms" and are given, in addition to the title, as examples of the diagnostic statements to be classified to that rubric. Many of the items listed relate to important or common terms belonging to the rubric. Others are borderline conditions or sites listed to distinguish the boundary between one subcategory and another. The lists of inclusion terms are by no means exhaustive and alternative names of diagnostic entities are included in the Alphabetical Index, which should be referred to first when coding a given diagnostic statement. This usually occurs when the inclusion terms are elaborating lists of sites or pharmaceutical products, where appropriate words from the titles. General diagnostic descriptions common to a range of categories, or to all the subcategories in a three-character category, are to be found in notes headed "Includes", immediately following a chapter, block or category title. Exclusion terms Certain rubrics contain lists of conditions preceded by the word "Excludes". These are terms which, although the rubric title might suggest that they were to be classified there, are in fact classified elsewhere. An example of this is in category A46, "Erysipelas", where postpartum or puerperal erysipelas is excluded. Following each excluded term, in parentheses, is the category or subcategory code elsewhere in the classification to which the excluded term should be allocated. General exclusions for a range of categories or for all subcategories in a three-character category are to be found in notes headed "Excludes", immediately following a chapter, block or category title. Glossary descriptions In addition to inclusion or exclusion terms, Chapter V, Mental and behavioural disorders, uses glossary descriptions to indicate the content of rubrics. This device is used because the terminology of mental disorders varies greatly, particularly between different countries, and the same name may be used to describe quite different conditions. To enclose supplementary words, which may follow a diagnostic term without affecting the code number to which the words outside the parentheses would be assigned. For example, in I10 the inclusion term, "Hypertension (arterial) (benign) (essential) (malignant) (primary) (systemic)", implies that I10 is the code number for the word "Hypertension" alone or when qualified by any one or combination, of the words in parentheses. To enclose the dagger code for an asterisk category and as asterisk code for a dagger category. They require one or more of the modifying or qualifying words indented under them before they can be assigned to the rubric. For example, in K36, "Other appendicitis", the diagnosis "appendicitis" is to be classified there only if qualified by the words "chronic" or "recurrent". Brace } A brace is used in listings of inclusion and exclusion terms to indicate that neither the words that precede it nor the words after it are complete terms. Any of the terms before the brace should be qualified by one or more of the terms that follow it. Sometimes an unqualified term is nevertheless classified to a rubric for a more specific type of the condition. This is because, in medical terminology, the most common form of a condition is often known by the name of the condition itself and only the less common types are qualified. For example, "mitral stenosis" is commonly used to mean "rheumatic mitral stenosis". These inbuilt assumptions have to be taken into account in order to avoid incorrect classification. Careful inspection of inclusion terms will reveal where an assumption of cause has been made; coders should be careful not to code a term as unqualified unless it is quite clear that no information is available that would permit a more specific assignment elsewhere. For example, before the Eighth Revision, an unqualified aortic aneurysm was assumed to be due to syphilis. For example: J16 Pneumonia due to other infectious organisms, not elsewhere classified this category includes J16. Many other categories are provided in Chapter X (for example, J09-J15) and other chapters (for example, P23. J18 Pneumonia, organism unspecified, accommodates pneumonias for which the infectious agent is not stated. G03 Meningitis due to other and unspecified causes, Excludes: meningoencephalitis (G04. Symbols † the dagger symbol is used to indicate a code that represents the etiology or underlying cause of a disease. This code should be paired with a dagger (etiology) code and should follow this in sequence. Identify the type of statement to be coded and refer to the appropriate section of the Alphabetical Index. However, some conditions expressed as adjectives or eponyms are included in the Index as lead terms. Read any terms enclosed in parentheses after the lead term (these modifiers do not affect the code number), as well as any terms indented under the lead term (these modifiers may affect the code number), until all the words in the diagnostic expression have been accounted for. It may be necessary to refer to all codes appearing under the three-character level in order to identify the most appropriate code. Be guided by any inclusion or exclusion terms under the selected code or under the chapter, block or category heading. Dr Jardel spoke of the extensive consultations and preparatory work that had gone into the revision proposals and had necessitated a longer than usual interval between revisions. He noted that the Tenth Revision would have a new title, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, to emphasize its statistical purpose and reflect the widening of its scope. Loy United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Temporary Adviser) Mr R. The Conference adopted an agenda dealing with the proposed content of the chapters of the Tenth Revision, and material to be incorporated in the published manual; the process for its introduction; and the family of classifications and related matters. While early revisions of the classification had been concerned only with causes of death, its scope had been extended at the Sixth Revision in 1948 to include non-fatal diseases. This extension had continued through the Ninth Revision, with certain innovations being made to meet the statistical needs of widely differing organizations. In addition, at the International Conference for the Ninth Revision (Geneva, 1975) (1), recommendations had been made and approved for the publication for trial purposes of supplementary classifications of procedures in medicine and of impairments, disabilities, and handicaps. Policy guidance had been provided by a number of special meetings and by the Expert Committee on the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision, which met in 1984 (2) and 1987 (3) to make decisions on the direction the work should take and the form of the final proposals. Even with a new structure, it was plain that one classification could not cope with the extremes of the requirements. Various schemes involving alphanumeric notation had been examined with a view to producing a coding frame that would give a better balance to the chapters and allow sufficient space for future additions and changes without disrupting the codes. Decisions made on these matters had paved the way for the preparation of successive drafts of chapter proposals for the Tenth Revision. These had twice been circulated to Member States for comment as well as being reviewed by other interested bodies, meetings of Centre Heads, and the Expert Committee. This had the effect of more than doubling the size of the coding frame in comparison with the Ninth Revision and enabled the vast majority of chapters to be assigned a unique letter or group of letters, each capable of providing 100 three-character categories. Of the 26 available letters, 25 had been used, the letter U being left vacant for future additions and changes and for possible interim classifications to solve difficulties arising at the national and international level between revisions. As a matter of policy, some three-character categories had been left vacant for future expansion and revision, the number varying according to the chapters: those with a primarily anatomical axis of classification had fewer vacant categories as it was considered that future changes in their content would be more limited in nature. The Ninth Revision contained 17 chapters plus two supplementary classifications: the Supplementary Classification of External Causes of Injury and Poisoning (the E code) and the Supplementary Classification of Factors Influencing Health Status and Contact with Health Services (the V code). As recommended by the Preparatory Meeting on the Tenth Revision (Geneva, 1983) (4) and endorsed by subsequent meetings, these two chapters were no longer considered to be supplementary but were included as a part of the core classification. The order of entry of chapters in the proposals for the Tenth Revision had originally been the same as in the Ninth Revision; however, to make effective use of the available space, disorders of the immune mechanism were later included with diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, whereas in the Ninth Revision they had been included with endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The new chapter on "Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism" now followed the "Neoplasms" chapter, with which it shared the letter D. During the elaboration of early drafts of the chapter on "Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs", it had soon become clear that it would not be possible to accommodate all the required detail under one letter in 100 three-character categories.

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