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Conventionally infection from earring discount augmentin 625mg online, if results as bad or worse would be expected less than 5 percent of the time vyrus 986 m2 kit purchase 375mg augmentin with amex, the result is said to virus game app buy augmentin 625mg cheap be statistically significant; if less than 1 percent of the time infection 5 weeks after c section buy augmentin 625mg visa, the result is called statistically highly significant; both outcomes cast the hypothesis into serious doubt. In nucleic acids, the shift is typically between a keto group (keto form) and a hydroxyl group (enol form). It acts by introducing a single-strand break, changing the relative positions of the strands, and sealing the break. Page 824 trait Any aspect of the appearance, behavior, development, biochemistry, or other feature of an organism. Von Hippel-Lindau disease Hereditary disease marked by tumors in the retina, brain, other parts of the central nervous system, and various organs throughout the body. X-linked inheritance the pattern of hereditary transmission of genes located in the X chromosome; usually evident from the production of nonidentical classes of progeny from reciprocal crosses. Y chromosome the sex chromosome present only in the heterogametic sex; in mammals, the male-determining sex chromosome. See recombination genetics bacteriophage, 328-340 defined, 2 evolution and, 22, 649-650 history of, 2, 32 Mendelian, 32 population. Michael, 579 localized centromere, 246-247 local population, 628 locomotor activity, 714-716 locus, 132 loss-of-function mutation, 526, 542 lost allele, 629 Luria, Salvador, 8 Lyon, Mary, 275, 276 lysine, 229, 413 lysis, 330-331 lysogen, 341 lysogenic cycle, 329 lysogeny, 340-345, 477-479 lytic cycle, 329-330, 340, 477-479 M McCarty, Maclyn, 4 McClintock, Barbara, 220, 242-243, 245 MacLeod, Colin, 4 McWhir, Jim, 380 mad cow disease, 724 maize. See corn major groove, 179 malaria, 17-18, 657 mammalian circadian rhythm, 723 map-based cloning. See conjugation mating systems, 632-639 Hardy-Weinberg principle and, 634-639 mating type, yeast, 490-491 mating-type interconversion, 481-482, 483, 484 maze-learning ability, 724-727 mean, 672, 674-675 media minimal, 312 nonselective and selective, 312 megabase pairs (Mb), 222 megaspore, 89 meiocytes, 88 meiosis, 83, 87-95 melting curve, 199, 200 melting temperature, 199-200 Mendel, Gregor, 2, 30, 32, 96, 246 experiments of, 2, 32-48, 82, 112, 114-115 genetic hypothesis of, 36-39 Mendelian genetics, 32 Mendelian inheritance, 48-51, 600, 628. See also population genetics mental retardation Down syndrome and, 271, 274, 275, 281, 294, 730 fragile-X syndrome and, 279-280, 518, 730 genetic and environmental effects on, 730 Klinefelter syndrome and, 279 phenylketonuria and, 730 trisomy-X syndrome and, 278 meristematic tissue, 267 meristems, 543-544 meristic traits, 671, 677 merodiploids. See precursor fragments oligonucleotide primer, 207, 208, 209, 370 oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis, 374-376 Oliver, C. See genetic recombination recombination frequency, 144 recruitment, 495 red-green color blindness, 283-286 reductional division (first meiotic division), 89-94 redundancy, 445-447 regulation. Due to the reduction or absence Albinism; of melanin, albinos are highly susceptible to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation and Albinism, are at increased risk of actinic damage and skin cancer. In Brazil, as in other parts of the oculocutaneous; world, albinism remains a little known disorder, both in relation to epidemiological data and to Keratosis, actinic; phenotypic and genotypic variation. In several regions of the country, individuals with albinism Sunscreening agents; have no access to resources or specialized medical care, and are often neglected and deprived Skin neoplasms; of social inclusion. Brazil is a tropical country, with a high incidence of solar radiation during Social stigma the year nationwide. Consequently, actinic damage and skin cancer occur early and have a high incidence in this population, often leading to premature death. Skin monitoring of these patients and immediate therapeutic interventions have a positive impact in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. Health education is important to inform albinos and their families, the general population, educators, medical professionals, and public agencies about the particularities of this genetic condition. The aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological, clinical, genetic, and psychosocial characteristics of albinism, with a focus in skin changes caused by this rare pigmentation disorder. Albinism: epidemiology, genetics, cutaneous characterization, psychosocial factors. Individuals with oculocutaneous albinism 20 and C10orf11, have been identified as responsible for causare unable to oxidize tyrosine into dopa through tyrosinase. In fact, the phenoHowever, there remain a substantial number of albinism typic variability of albinism is broad, ranging from complete cases without molecular identification, suggesting that more absence of pigmentation of the hair, skin, and eyes to mild 5 7 genes are associated with the condition. The distinction between albinism subtypes based Many albinos develop actinic keratosis or skin cancers 5,8-12 on clinical characteristics and the broad phenotypic hetbefore reaching the age of 30 years. The sequelae of erogeneity of the disorder hinders the establishment of skin cancer are among the leading causes of early death 11,12 phenotypic and genetic correlations, and there is extenin albino patients. Skin cancer occurs in young adults sive overlapping of different forms of the disease. Molecular among albino patients with non-photoprotected exposure studies to define the exact type of mutation are therefore to sun. However, this test is currently not available under and biologically aggressive in nature, although melanoma is 2 4 5,8,9 the Brazilian public health system. The cancer typically occurs on the head or neck, Albinism is a genetic disorder that affects individuals of areas usually more exposed to solar radiation. The global incidence of albinism is and should undergo regular skin exams every six months or 5,8,9 1:20,000 individuals, with a lower rate in the United States less. The prevalence of albinism in these studies ranged from 1:15,000 in the midAlbinism types and epidemiology eastern state of Nigeria27 to 1:1000 among the Tonga tribe of Zimbabwe, an isolated rural community. Besides the limited geographical Pudlak and Chediak-Higashi subtypes, hypopigmentation mobility, consanguinity, together with other traditional marand visual impairments coexist with more severe pathologiriage practices, may also be pertinent factors in assessments cal abnormalities. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome can present of current and future trends of albinism prevalence. Chediak-Higashi syndrome, besides in Caucasians, accounting for 50% of all cases worldwide. Given its small population and remote location, conlent in some populations: for example, a recent European sanguinity is high and the supposed rate of albinism in prospective study assessing the clinical and genetic characthe 1970s and 1980s was considered one of the highest in teristics of a group of patients (33 children and 31 adults) the world. The region now has fewer albinos, since many seen at a specialized day hospital revealed a prevalence of migrated to other regions and/or met early deaths due to 7. There are scant epidemiological studies and no Mato Grosso; data reported from the internet). The incidence these numbers refiect the true situation in the country, is thought to be higher in regions with a greater prevalence highlighting the need for the government to register African descent, such as the Northeast. The population of albinism in official databases or conduct population-based Bahia, Brazil’s third most populous state, is mostly of African studies that provide a reliable estimate of these figures. Owing to the high presence of African Thus, there is a general paucity of studies mapping the epiancestry and the fact the region was the point of entry for demiology of albinism in Brazil. Further studies are needed African slaves during the colonial period, Bahia is believed to provide a deeper understanding on the distribution and to have the highest incidence of albinos in the country. Reports of the districts with higher albinism rates had a high proporstudies carried out in Bahia, data from the Association tion of African descent. These factors contribute to an increase in the different ethnic groups and characterized by loss of function morbimortality associated with the condition, including of the tyrosinase enzyme, as a result of a mutation in the actinic damage and skin cancer. Tyrosine is the critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of the brownish-black eumelanin and yellow pheomelanin. Its exact functions are not mined by multiple factors, including the number and fully understood, but the P protein appears to be involved metabolic activity of melanocytes in the base layer of the with the transport of proteins to melanosomes, stabilizing epidermis, the melanogenic activity of melanosomes within the melanosomal protein complex and the regulation of the these melanocytes, and variations in the number, size, pH of the melanosome and/or metabolism of glutathione, and distribution of melanosomes. In early 2013, a team of Chinese researchers reported Melanin is a polymer pigment produced in melanocytes. These data strongly tation is inversely correlated with risk of sun-induced skin 53 suggest a role of this new gene in the differentiation of cancer. This damage generpatients may be less vulnerable to skin cancers stems from ally occurs at a degree that is reversible by the mechanisms comparisons with vitiligo. There is no pre-cancerous epithelial field composed of a clone of iniconvincing evidence supporting differences in risks across tially transformed keratinocytes with genomic instability. The assumption that the presthis genomic instability predisposes the initial transformaence of low levels of pigment confers some photoprotection, tion of the keratinocytes to further genetic alterations and lowering the risk of developing skin cancer in albinos, has can lead to clonal divergence processes, with consequent been put in doubt. Thus, a high frequency of shorter skin owing to melanin deficiency, making Brazil extremely exposures to sunlight are more likely to be carcinogenic unfavorable for this highly vulnerable population. The more genetic alterations that occur, the greater the chance of malignant Solar radiation, actinic damage, and skin cancer transformation. As albinos are photosensitive and tend to burn easily, the the prevalence of actinic keratosis depends on skin type, local infiammation induced by the solar radiation in the skin geographic location, and length of exposure to sunlight. Most of study (also yet unpublished), composed of 146 patients on a this damage occurs in the body regions most exposed to pro-albino care program seen by the same institution, found the sun, such as the face, ears, neck, and shoulders. Skin that the mean age of albino patients with skin cancer was lesions include sunburns, blisters, solar elastosis/keratosis, 47 years. As expected, failure to use sun protection and sunephelides, lentigo, and skin cancer. Unfortunately, these injuries were highly prevalent, with rates Climatic factors in Brazil similar to those reported in African studies. The is within the tropics, providing very high levels of solar minimum ages at which this damage occurred was also found radiation. This holds true even during the winIn the negro population with albinism in Africa, actinic ter season and outside the hours considered critical for solar damage can be seen in young children. Daily doses of radiation are, on average, higher in the ability of those affected by albinism.


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For the interactive models antibiotics to treat mrsa buy 625mg augmentin free shipping, the effects of the genetic polymorphisms were examined in different environments antibiotic skin infection buy discount augmentin 625 mg on-line. Specifically antibiotics resistance purchase augmentin 625mg with visa, the effects of the polymorphisms were estimated for a low delinquent peers group versus a high delinquent peers group and for respondents from high-risk families versus respondents from low-risk families antibiotics zyvox augmentin 375mg on line. The results of the high versus low delinquent peers group (and the highversus low-risk families) were compared to each other. If the genes had different effects depending upon the group they fell in, then a GxE was observed. If the effects of the genetic measures were significant in both models or insignificant in both models, then a GxE was not detected. As such, the denominator is a count of how many models were being compared; it is not a count of the number of models estimated. It was hypothesized that the genetic polymorphisms would interact with delinquent peers and with family risk to predict the seven different measures of delinquent and criminal behaviors. Additionally, it was hypothesized that the genetic effects would be much stronger and much more consistent in the interactive models when compared with the direct effects models. For example, the interactive effects models have a much more consistent effect on a range of antisocial behaviors. For every polymorphism, a higher percentage of significant findings were detected for the interactive effects models than for the direct effects models. When the results of the direct effects models were pooled together, 14 percent of all the analyses detected a significant direct effect. In contrast, 22 percent of all the interactive effects models were statistically significant. Analysis of the Add Health data thus support prior empirical and theoretical research revealing the importance of GxEs in the study of crime and criminals (Caspi et al. Without examining how genetic influences ebbed and flowed in different environments, many significant genetic effects would have been masked. The results of the interactive effects models are a testimony to the 22 Prior research has tended to focus solely on white respondents making it nearly impossible to compare the results of the findings for blacks to those reported in prior published literature. As mentioned previously, part of the reason that criminologists and sociologists have been antagonistic to biogenic explanations of crime is because they are viewed as deterministic. The findings garnered from analysis of the Add Health data should help alleviate some of these concerns. For the interactive effects models, the only time that a particular genetic polymorphisms exerted an effect on the outcome measure was when it was paired to a specific environment; change the environment and the genetic effect evaporates. Only by examining the complex interplay between genes and the environment will a richer understanding of criminal and delinquent behavior be realized (Raine, 1993; Rutter, 2006; Walsh, 2002). Too many social scientists still view the nature versus nurture debate as alive and well (Pinker, 2002; Ridley, 2003). Publications revealing strong genetic influences on phenotypes only add more fuel to the fire; subsequent failed replications of a genetic effect leave social scientists perplexed. The problem, however, is that the nature-nurture debate is outdated and has already been answered: human development is the result of nature and nurture working together. In order to gain a richer understanding of the causes of crime, criminological research needs to begin to examine the ways in which the environment and genes interact to produce serious, violent, and aggressive behaviors. As the findings in this dissertation show, both the environment and genes make substantial contributions to the study of offending behaviors. Limitations and Directions for Future Research the current dissertation provides empirical evidence showing that many types of antisocial behaviors, for many different types of people, are influenced by genetic factors. Before proceeding, however, it is important to discuss the main limitations of this dissertation. The first main limitation of this study is that not everyone in the Add Health data was 23 genotyped. However, two qualifications caution against explaining the findings away in terms of data limitations. First, prior research analyzing the Add Health data has found that the distribution of alleles for certain of the genetic polymorphisms to be very similar to those found in the general population (Hopfer et al. These results hint at the possibility that the genetic sample is a representative crosssection of American adolescents and young adults. Second, the sample size for the Add Health data is much larger than those usually employed in genetic studies. Quantitative genetic studies often employ clinical samples that are not an adequate representation of the population at large. The Add Health data provides an important exception to the general rule of using convenient samples of patients. Future research would benefit by replicating the analyses reported here with a different sample of respondents. The second main limitation of the analyses is that respondents in the Add Health sample are mainly adolescents and very young adults. The truncated age range of the Add Health data precludes the ability to examine how particular genetic polymorphisms may affect life-course transitions that occur during adulthood. However, recent research by Sampson and Laub (2005; Laub and Sampson, 2003) provides circumstantial evidence hinting at the possibility that gene X 23 the Add Health research design team recognizes the importance of genotyping a large, nationally-representative sample of respondents. In their work, Sampson and Laub argue that “human agency,” or choice, is a major reason that some individuals choose to abstain from offending behaviors, even after a very lengthy involvement in crime (Laub and Sampson, 2003; Sampson and Laub, 2005). For example, Sampson and Laub (2005:14) advocate “a life-course view that emphasizes human agency and choice over the life span, underscoring how people construct their lives. Of course, this is an empirical question that can ultimately be answered through data analysis. The third main limitation of this study is that many of the measures used to operationalize traditional criminological theories. These measures were not included in the analyses because there was not reason to believe that the genetic polymorphisms shared variation with 24 measures typically used by criminologists. A variable can be omitted from multivariate 24 the skeptical reader may point out the possibility that certain of the genetic polymorphisms could be related to the development of self-control (Wright and Beaver, 2005). To explore this possibility, and following prior research 366 this document is a research report submitted to the U. Given the lack of correspondence between the polymorphisms and measures of major theoretical constructs, misspecification does not appear to bias the results. The fourth and final main limitation of this dissertation is that only five different genetic polymorphisms were examined. But, as the functionality of more and more genes is discovered, the potential for additional “risk genes” to explain variation in antisocial behavior is very likely. Future research is needed to examine how different genes—genes that have not yet been implicated in the etiology of psychopathology—may be associated with various forms of antisocial conduct. Even with these limitations in mind, the statistical models provided a very conservative test of the genetic effects on a range of antisocial outcomes. Most of the extant genetic literature fails to use multivariate statistical models to control for extraneous influences. In this dissertation, the effects of some very potent criminogenic environments—delinquent peers and family risk—along with the effects of key control variables were held constant. Only after partitioning out the effects of these other influences were the genetic effects estimated. Nonetheless, when using these analyzing the Add Health data (Perrone, Sullivan, Pratt, and Margaryan, 2004), a measure of low self-control was created. Next, bivariate correlations were calculated to determine whether there were any significant correlations between the genes and the self-control scale. In order to preserve degrees of freedom, the self-control scale was not included in the multivariate models. Future research may wish to explore whether GxEs are about to account for the development of self-control. Implications for Criminology the results of this dissertation reveal that genes influence not only behaviors, but also measures of the social environment. Still, we are left with the resonating question of how these findings affect criminology and criminologists. First, in order to stay abreast of the mushrooming body of research revealing strong genetic influences on all types of behaviors and personality traits, criminology must make room for biosocial explanations to crime and criminality.

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Assign code 999999 when an area does have an assigned census tract but the census tract is not available 5 antibiotic pink eye trusted augmentin 375mg. Add the suffix as the fifth and sixth digits if it exists; otherwise antibiotics for dogs eye infection safe 375mg augmentin, use 00 so all six positions are coded antibiotics to treat uti generic 375 mg augmentin visa. Census tract certainty records how the 2010 census tract was assigned for an individual record antibiotics for uti with renal failure generic augmentin 625mg visa. Central registry staff should code this field manually when geocoding is not available through a vendor service. Code 5 has priority over code 9 Note: Codes 1-5 and 9 are usually assigned by a geocoding vendor, while code 6 is usually assigned through a special effort by the central registry. Assign code 1 when the census tract is assigned with certainty based on complete and valid street address 2. Cases diagnosed since 2005 are assigned a code based on the American Community Survey data that is published annually using the diagnosis year. The codes separate counties into metropolitan counties and non-metropolitan counties based on the population size, and on proximity to a metro area for nonmetropolitan counties. Codes for this data item can be derived electronically using the state and county at diagnosis. The variable can be an indicator of access to recreation, access to food stores, exposures to pollutants, crime levels, social cohesion, etc. Collecting the variable with each decennial census allows for retrospective and cross-sectional epidemiologic analysis. Coding Instructions Assign the most specific code possible from Appendix B of this manual. Leave the year, month and/or day blank when they cannot be calculated or are unknown. Leave the year, month and/or day blank when they cannot be calculated or are unknown a. If the date of birth is unknown, but the Age at Diagnosis and Date of Diagnosis are known a. Calculate the year of birth by subtracting the patient’s age at diagnosis from the year of diagnosis b. Leave the month and day blank Note: A zero must precede a single-digit month and a single-digit day. Code Label Definition Blank A valid date value is provided in Date of Birth 12 Unknown A proper value is applicable but not known Coding Instructions 1. Code Description 000 Less than one year old 001 One year old, but less than two years old 002 Two years old (Actual age in years) 101 One hundred one years old 120 One hundred twenty years old 999 Unknown age Coding Instructions 1. Generally, the registry software program calculates the Age at Diagnosis using the Date of Birth and Date of Diagnosis 3. Age at Diagnosis can be manually calculated using the Date of Birth and the Date of Diagnosis 4. If the patient’s age is 100 years or older, check the accuracy of the date of birth and date of diagnosis, and document both in a text field Cases Diagnosed In Utero Record 000, less than one year old, for cases diagnosed in utero. Generally, registry software programs calculate the Age at Diagnosis using the Date of Birth and Date of Diagnosis. The calculation may result in a negative number for a case diagnosed in utero – replace the negative number with 000. Census Bureau as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or in some cases, the country of birth of the person or the person’s parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. The five race fields (Race 1 – Race 5) make it possible to code multiple races for one person, consistent with the 2000 Census. All resources in the facility, including the medical record, face sheet, physician and nursing notes, photographs, and any other sources, must be used to determine race. If a facility does not print race in the medical record but does maintain it in electronic form, the electronic data must also be reviewed. Recommendation: Document how the race code(s) was (were) determined in a text field. Code 07 takes priority over all other codes Example: Patient is described as Japanese and Hawaiian. Code only the specific race when both a specific race code and a non-specific race code apply a. See Coding Instruction 15, Exception, for the only situation in which name is taken into account when coding race 2. Code race using the highest priority source available according to the list below (a is the highest and c is the lowest) when race is reported differently by two or more sources Sources in Priority Order a. Code the race(s) of the patient in fields Race 1, Race 2, Race 3, Race 4, and Race 5 a. Code 88 for the remaining race fields (Race 2 – Race 5) when at least one race, but fewer than five races, are reported 5. Why a particular race code was chosen when there are discrepancies in race information Example: the patient is identified as Black in nursing notes and White in a dictated physical exam. There is a statement that the patient is Hispanic or Latino(a) and no further information is available Example: Sabrina Fitzsimmons is a Latina. Code race as 02 (Black) when the stated race is African-American, Black, or Negro 8. Example: Patient is described as Asian in a consult note and as second generation KoreanAmerican in the history. Code the race based on birthplace information when the race is recorded as Oriental, Mongolian, or Asian and the place of birth is recorded as China, Japan, the Philippines, or another Asian nation Example 1: Race is recorded as Asian and the place of birth is recorded as Japan. All race fields must be coded 99 (Unknown) when Race 1 is coded 99 (Unknown) Note: Assign code 99 in Race 2-5 only when Race 1 is coded 99. Refer to Appendix D “Race and Nationality Descriptions from the 2000 Census and Bureau of Vital Statistics” when race is unknown or not stated in the medical record and birth place is recorded a. Exception: Code Race 1 through Race 5 as 99 (Unknown) when patient’s name is incongruous with the race inferred on the basis of nationality. Do not code the inferred race when the patient’s name is incongruent with the race inferred on the basis of nationality. When the patient face-sheet indicates “Race Other,” look for other descriptions of the patient’s race. When no further race information is available, code race as 99 (Unknown) and document that patient face-sheet indicates “Race Other,” and no further race information is available. Patient photographs may be used with caution to determine race in the absence of any other information a. The use of photographs alone to determine race may lead to misclassification of race. Code race in the order stated when no other priority applies Coding Examples Example 1: Patient is stated to be Japanese. Code Race 1 as 25 (Polynesian), Race 2 as 26 (Tahitian) and Race 3 through Race 5 as 88. Example 6: Patient describes herself as multi-racial (nothing more specific) and nursing notes say “AfricanAmerican. Change Race 1 in the cancer record to 04 (Chinese) and code Race 2 through Race 5 as 88. Race 1 is the field used to compare with race data on cases diagnosed prior to January 1, 2000 2. Race codes must be identical on each record when the patient has multiple tumors a. For cases that have multiple tumors with at least one primary diagnosed on or after January 1, 2000, race codes in Race 1, Race 2, Race 3, Race 4, and Race 5 must be identical on all records 3. Codes 15, 16, and 17 became effective with diagnoses on or after January 1, 2010 7. San Francisco, San Jose-Monterey, and Los Angeles are permitted to use codes 14 and 20-97 for cases diagnosed after January 1, 1987; Greater California is permitted to use codes 14 and 20-97 for cases diagnosed after January 1, 1988. For singlerace cases with a code other than 96 in Race 1, the algorithm defaults to the code in Race 1. In Version 1 of the algorithm, birth place can be used to indirectly assign a specific race to one of eight Asian race groups (Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Korean, Asian Indian, Filipino, Thai, and Cambodian), and names can be used to indirectly assign a specific race to one of seven Asian groups (Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Korean, Asian Indian, Filipino, and Hmong). A number of filters based on race, ethnicity, birthplace, or county of residence may preclude a patient from being assigned a race based on surname. This linkage identifies American Indians who were misclassified as non-Indian in the registry. The computer linkage program will automatically assign the code for this data item.

Selection: Gradually virus jotti order augmentin 625 mg free shipping, the cat recognized the correct way to infection 4 weeks after wisdom teeth removal augmentin 625mg with mastercard manipulate the latch antibiotics newborns buy discount augmentin 375mg on-line. Fixation: At last virus writing class cheap 625mg augmentin free shipping, the cat learned the proper way to open the door by eliminating all the incorrect responses and fixing only the right response. Now it was able to open the door without any error or in other words, learnt the correct way of opening the door. Based upon the experiment mentioned above the major theoretical principles which form the basis of Thorndike’s theory of learning and summarized in the discussion as follows. Learning is incremental, not insightful; Learning is direct, not mediated by ideas. The Law of readiness Readiness according to the Thorndike’s is preparation for action. If the child is ready to learn, he learn more quickly, effectively and with greater satisfaction. This shows us not to force the child to learn if he is not ready but also not miss any opportunity of providing learning experiences if the child is prepared to learn. The right movements concerning the learning situation and the learner’s state of mind should be recognized and maximum use should be made of this knowledge by the teacher. He should also make an attempt to motivate the students by stimulating their attention, interest and curiosity. The law of use and the law of disuse which may be stated as the Law of use: the law of use states that the more accompanied by or frequently modifiable connection between stimulusresponse (S-R) is made stronger (a) the Law of disuse: When a modifiable connection is not made between a situation and response, during a length of time, that connection’s strength is decreased. The Law of Effect In other words, learning can be said to have taken place properly when it results in satisfaction and the learner derives pleasure from it. In the situation when the child meets failure or is dissatisfied, the progress of learning is blocked. All pleasant experiences have lasting influences and are remembered for a long time, while the unpleasant ones are soon forgotten, Therefore, the satisfaction and dissatisfaction, pleasure or displeasure resulting from a learning experience decides the degree of its effectiveness. This law emphasizes the role of rewards and punishment in the process of learning. It explains the process of learning among animals and human beings on the basis of actual experiments. Not only human learning but animal learning also follows the path of trial and error. A child when confronted with a mathematical problem tries several possibilities before he arrives at the correct solution. Even discoveries and inventions in the various fields of knowledge are the result of the trial and error process. Thorndike’s theory of trial and error learning and his laws of learning have been a significant contribution to the field of learning. It has made learning purposeful and goal directed and has emphasized the importance of motivation. It has also given an impetus to drill and practice and highlighted the psychological importance of rewards and praise in the field of learning. During his studies he noticed that dogs, on whom he was doing his experiments, started secreting saliva as soon as they saw the empty plate in which food was served. As you must be aware, saliva secretion is a reflexive response to food or something in the mouth. Pavlov designed an experiment to understand this process in detail in which dogs were used once again. In the meantime, a simple surgery was conducted, and one end of a tube was inserted in the dogs jaw and the other end of the tube was put in a measuring glass. In the second phase of the experiment, the dog was kept hungry and placed in harness with one end of the tube ending in the jaw and the other end in the glass jar. A bell was sounded and immediately thereafter food (meat powder) was served to the dog. After a number of such trials, a test trial was introduced in which everything was the same as the previous trials except that no food followed the sounding of the bell. The dog still salivated to the sound of the bell, expecting presentation of the meat powder as the sound of bell had come to be connected with it. This association 36 between the bell and food resulted in acquisition of a new response by the dog, i. After conditioning, salivation started to occur in the presence of the sound of the bell. Extinction It was noted by Pavlov that if the conditioned stimulus (ringing of the bell) is presented alone a number of times without the food, the magnitude of the conditioned response of salivation begins to decrease, and so does the probability of its appearing at all. This process of gradual disappearance of the conditioned response or disconnection of the S. Spontaneous Recovery It was also discovered by Pavlov that after extinction, then a controlled response is no longer evident. Stimulus Generalisation Responding to the stimulus is such a generalized way was termed as stimulus generalization with reference to a particular stage of learning behavior in which an individual once conditioned to respond to a specific stimulus is made to respond in the same way in respond to other stimuli of similar nature. Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus discrimination is the opposite of stimulus generalization. Here, sharp contrast to responding in a usual fashion the subject learns to react differently in different situation. The process of conditioning, not only helps in learning what is desirable but also helps in eliminating, avoiding or unlearning of undesirable habits, unhealthy attitudes, superstition, fear and phobia through de-conditioning. An individual who hates a particular person or object may be made to seek pleasure in their company. Another individual who thinks it is a bad sign if a car crosses his path may be made to give up his superstitious belief. Skinner studied occurrence of voluntary responses when an organism operates on the environment. Operant’s are those behavior or responses, which are emitted by animals and human beings voluntary and are under their control. The term operant is used because the organism operates on the environment; Conditioning of operant behavior is called operant conditioning. Now in this process the emitted response namely striking of the lever at random casually is re-inforced by food and striking of the lever becomes a usual behavior i. The rat operates on the environment casually and this casual operation becomes an usual operation by getting re-inforcement for a casual operation in the beginning. Operant conditioning is also known as instrumental conditioning as the reinforcement becomes instrument for the casual behavior becoming usual behavior. Application of operant conditioning in classroom instruction Reinforcement is effective only when it is something that satisfies the present need of the organism. The rat was hungry; the need for rat was forced and food has acted as an effective reinforcement because it satisfied the need hunger. In the classroom also to modify the undesirable behavior of students or to make them learn new behavior, reinforcement is an effective means. In the classrooms the need of the student may not be satisfaction of hunger, but very often some recognition, praise, reward and such other pleasing things to the students. Encouraging the students by pleasing facial expressions such as smiling or nice words such as good, well said etc. When a student given a correct answer to a question or when he himself attempts to get the correct answer will act as positive reinforcements and such reinforcement will make student came forward to participate in the classroom activate willingly and frequently. Such reinforcements should be given immediately after the desirable behavior has been exhibited by the students. Then only the students will associate the response with the reinforcement and learning of desirable behavior becomes effective. According to them, in a learning process, the learner does not merely receive or make responses to the stimuli. The nearest English translation of Gestalt is Configuration or more simply an” organize d whole”. The basic idea of the theory is that a thing cannot be understood by the study of its constituent parts but only by the study of it as a totality or whole. In practical tem, Gestalt Psychology is primarily concerned with the nature of perception.

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