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By: Jennifer Lynn Garst, MD

  • Professor of Medicine
  • Member of the Duke Cancer Institute


For the most part antibiotics for acne good or bad buy generic terramycin 250 mg on line, absorbance values based on the calibrator measurements or derived from calibration curves are converted into assay-specific units per milliliter (U/mL) bacteria kingdom examples 250mg terramycin free shipping. Measurement accuracy and antibiotic kidney failure order terramycin 250 mg, thus antibiotic pseudomonas purchase terramycin 250 mg, the U/mL data, depends greatly on the dilution accuracy and the test’s linear measuring range. Highly positive test results in one test can easily lead to low test results in another assay depending on the testing principle and antigen composition. Therefore, it is impossible or nearly impossible for clinicians to interpret highly positive or low test results based on clinical symptoms without knowing the manufacturer of the test. One of the limiting factors for an undertaking of this kind is that large volumes are required. Preparations, like those used to set up tests in pertussis serology, enable quantitative and semi-quantitative results to be given in international units. Depending on the availability of the corresponding international standard in the testing lab, individual test fluctuations can even be offset for the most part by making corrections to the standard. For a large number of other serological tests with a low degree of standardization, threshold titers have to be evaluated on a large number of clinically ill patients and healthy control patients based on the specific test. This threshold value is mostly test-specific and is crucially responsible for the sensitivity and specificity of the respective assays. When the cut-off value is defined analytically, the sensitivity of the test is set to a clearly defined mass concentration of the analyte based on the specific test. This requires an analyte that has been distinctly characterized and is clearly determinable. Consequently, a specific detection limit can be set for this test that clearly distinguishes between positive and negative samples and defines both the sensitivity and the specificity of the test. The establishment of analytical cut offs within the framework of antibody detection is, by its nature, difficult due to the biological variability of the detected antibodies and the resulting lack of a clear definition of the analyte. Therefore, epidemiologically determined cut-off values are regularly used in immunoassays that detect antibodies. A sufficient number of clinically defined test samples (sera, plasmas), which can be clinically assigned to definitively diagnosed patients or test subjects, are tested for evaluation purposes. The gold standard for the initial setting of this test is its traceability to clinically ascertained infected and non-infected patients rather than the concentration of a specific analyte determined by a reference method. At the same time, problem sera, taken from test subjects with a clinically diagnosed infection, are tested outside the range of medical laboratory services for the diagnostic test in question in order to exclude false reactive results and cross reactivity. At the practical level, the evaluation of the cut-off values and, thus, the quality of the test based on sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values, decisively stands and falls with the definition of the clinical gold standard, the number of examined controls, and the number and type of samples with possible cross-reactive antibodies. Such cut-off values cannot be universally established for many serological tests for infectious diseases. Instead their sensitivity and specificity 18 must be tested and established region-by-region in order to be able to take into account the various local epidemiological factors. The gray area is primarily determined by the variability of the test-specific analysis and is also referred to as the repetition range since semi-quantitative and quantitative test results in this range have to be confirmed as being either reactive or non-reactive by repeating the test or by turning to an alternative test system. Their rational definition is almost solely based on the epidemiological data on the distribution of the associated quantitative or semi-quantitative measurement values in infected and non-infected population groups. A titer or measurement value is considered to be diagnostically relevant when the measurement result of the diagnostic test is so high compared to the population group which is not acutely ill that an acute or recent infection is highly or very highly probable, even as a single value. Measurement values with such a high specificity and correspondingly high positive predictive value can only be derived for a few indications or pathogen-specific tests. This in turn defines whether the tests need to undergo internal and external quality controls as laid down in the guidelines. A qualitative characteristic exists when the value obtained is assigned to a scale with no defined intervals (topological scale). Nominal characteristics are typical, qualitative characteristics whose values have no identifying characteristic (nominal scale. Identifying characteristics are qualitative characteristics whose value has an ordinal characteristic (ordinal scale. A characteristic is deemed quantitative if its value can be assigned to a scale in which intervals are defined (metric or cardinal scale). In fact, these tests provide qualitative test results with a relative, quantitative (also semi-quantitative) test statement. In summary, modern serological testing for infectious diseases primarily produces qualitative test results (positive, negative, borderline) and semi-quantitative test results in the form of titers, cut-off indices or U/mL. Conversely, primarily qualitative methods, such as immunoblots, can produce different results and, in the worst case, even produce contradictory results, particularly in the cut-off range of the test. Therefore, antibody determination should be monitored where possible during the course of the illness and be performed on at least two different samples taken several days or weeks apart. The usual control intervals are 5 – 10 days for virological pathogens, 14 days to 3 weeks for bacterial pathogens, and even longer periods (3 – 6 (– 10) weeks) for atypical pathogens or microorganisms with long incubation times. Parallel testing on samples taken at different times using the same test assay and the same test system is crucial for establishing whether there is a significant change. Unfortunately, this occurs infrequently in practical patient care since so-called serum banks (archives with patient samples) of many laboratories are often not kept for longer periods of time. In the respective parallel tests, the following constellations can be regarded as being significant: • Initial detection of specific antibodies when the preliminary sample is negative (seroconversion). In order to interpret the findings, the laboratory must define the main criteria for the tests used. They must notify the attending physician of the findings and impart test results in a clear way in order to prevent misinterpretations by the clinical staff with regard to changes in serology-significant findings. In contrast, when interpreting serological tests, a positive test result for the tested pathogen indicates an acute, recent, or past infection depending on the result constellation of the immune response specific to the antigen and immunoglobulin class. However, it should be noted that false reactive results (particularly for IgM) can occur, for example, if the individual is pregnant or infected with a form of herpes virus. Equally, with regard to non-specific and highly cross-reactive antigens and epitopes, antigen communities of different pathogens can lead to the induction of poly-specific antibodies which can lead to the detection of cross-reactive, but not pathogen-specific, antibodies. The following correlations should be considered with regard to the semi-quantitative and quantitative interpretation of serological tests: 20 the increase or reduction in the patient’s primary or secondary immune response determines the level of the measurement result and is, itself, dependent on the infectious agent, the patient’s immune status, the detection method used, the antigen preparation used in the test and during the course of the disease, and the quality of the antibiotic treatment and point when it was introduced. In each case, a serial test should be conducted on samples taken at least 7 – 14 (– 21) days later. These are tested in a parallel test using the same assay in order to achieve a high-quality interpretation of the quantitative test results. In contrast, consistently high titers in consecutive samples are to interpreted as an existing or past infection. In these types of interpretations, the kinetics and the immune response specific to the type of antigen or immunoglobulin class must be considered. The switch from IgM to IgG antibodies is often an indication of a current or recent infection. A test result that does not exceed the cut-off or threshold titer does not rule out an acute or recent infection, particularly when the infection was likely in the recent past, when the incubation period is longer, when an effective antibiotic treatment was instigated early on, or when the tested person is experiencing concomitant circumstances that compromise the immune system. It should also be remembered that localized infections are frequently not accompanied by a systemic, prolonged immune response. Precision is a measurement of the correlation between measurement values that are independent of one another (repeat measurements) and which were obtained under specified conditions. In the case of intra-assay variability, the value should be calculated in a test run. To do this, at least 3 samples in at least 3 measurement ranges (negative, threshold/weakly positive and highly positive) should be tested. The same procedure is carried out for inter-assay variability, however the measurements should be made in at least 3 independent test runs. Accuracy describes the degree of agreement between an average value, obtained in a large series of measurements, and a reference value (true value). In simple terms, precision and accuracy mean the following: a test is precise when repeat measurements exhibit little variation. A test is accurate when the measurement value closely approximates the gold standard. The comparative test shows, with repeated testing of a sample, the same value on average as the gold standard (accurate) and little variation (precise). The comparative test shows, with repeated testing of a sample, a different value on average than the gold standard (inaccurate) and slight variation (precise). The comparative test shows, with repeated testing of a sample, the same value on average as the gold standard (accurate) and considerable variation (imprecise). The comparative test shows, with repeated testing of a sample, a different value on average than the gold standard (inaccurate) and considerable variation (imprecise). Testing methods are only able to present biological processes in a simplified in vitro form, without being able to illustrate the in vivo situation in its entire complexity.

Should be provided in all cases and can consist of uid and electrolyte replacement antimicrobial office products cheap 250 mg terramycin overnight delivery, a diet of easily digestible foods antimicrobial yarn purchase terramycin 250mg on-line. Adjunctive loperamide therapy can be administered to infection toe buy terramycin 250 mg mastercard patients with traveler’s diarrhea to virus not allowing internet access quality 250mg terramycin decrease duration of diarrhea and increase chance for a cure; however, antimotility medications should be avoided in patients with dysentery or suspected inammatory diarrhea. The recommended dose of lop eramide for therapy for adults with diarrhea is 4 mg initially followed by 2 mg after subsequently passed watery stools not to exceed 8 mg per day. The drug will produce black stools and black tongues from harmless bismuth sulde salt. Patients should avoid milk or other dairy products due to the develop ment of transient lactose intolerance. The initial treatment of infectious diarrhea should focus on the prevention of dehydration with rehydration efforts. Treatment recommendations according to the degree of dehydration include the following. Less than 10 kg weight: 60 to 120 mL of oral rehydration solution per diar rhea stool b. Greater than 10 kg weight: 120 to 240 mL of oral rehydration solution per diarrhea stool 2. Normal saline solution 20 mL per kg of body weight infused until improved perfusion, heart rate, urine output, and mental status. More useful in cases of diarrhea associated with inva sive or inammatory pathogens. In general, the evidence does not support empiric antimicrobial therapy for rou tine acute diarrheal infection, except in cases of traveler’s diarrhea where the likelihood of bacterial pathogens is high enough to justify the potential side effects of antibiotics. Finally, the use of antibiotics for community-acquired diarrhea should be discouraged as epidemiologic studies suggest that most community-acquired diarrhea is viral in origin (norovirus, rotavirus, and adenovirus) and is not shortened by the use of antibiotics. Selected antimicrobial therapy for the more common causes of infectious diarrhea includes: 1. Single-dose therapy using azithromycin 1,000 mg, ciprooxacin 750 mg, or levooxacin 500 mg may be considered and has been shown to be as effective as 3-day therapies for traveler’s diarrhea due to noninvasive pathogens. Shigella spp–related infections, however, are the exception and are usually treated for 5 days in immunocompetent patients and 7 to 10 days in immunocompromised patients. Treatment is usually indicated for severe diar rhea and/or patients with the following conditions: (a) age less than 6 months or greater than 50 years; (b) prosthetic vascular or orthopedic device; (c) ath erosclerosis or valvular heart disease; (d) immunocompromised. Treatment is usually indicated for severe diarrhea, bacteremia, or immunocompromised patients. Frequent and effective handwashing and alcohol-based hand sani tizers are of limited value in preventing most forms of traveler’s diarrhea but may be useful where low-dose pathogens are responsible for a diarrheal illness. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics for prevention of traveler’s diarrhea are not effective; however, individuals should undergo pretravel counseling regarding high risk food/beverage avoidance to prevent traveler’s diarrhea. An inammatory condition of the colon due to toxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium difcile. Complete loss or a signicant reduction in colonization naturally occurs around the age of 12 to 18 months and coincides with the development of the normal colonic ora. Approximately 3% of healthy adolescents and adults are colonized with the bacteria and remain asymptomatic. For unclear reasons (presumed increased person-to-person spread), coloni zation increases to 20% to 30% in the hospital setting and to approximately 50% in nursing home or long-term care hospital settings. While there is no sexual predilection or seasonal variation for colonization with this bacterium, increasing age and length of stay in the hospital, nursing home, or long-term care facility are associated with increased colonization rates. The incidence of disease has been estimated to be from 30 to 90 cases per 100,000 persons. This is the most important risk factor with all antibiotic classes car rying a risk for the disease. Approximately 96% of symptomatic Clostridium dif cile infected patients received antibiotics within 14 days of infection, and 100% of affected patients were exposed to antibiotics within 3 months. Although any antibi otic can result in disease, the most frequently associated antibiotic classes include: 1. Reduction of the gastric acid barrier may allow more viable bacteria and spores to reach the colon. Hospitalization, Nursing Home Resident, or Admission to a Long-Term Care Facility D. These agents alter the intestinal ora to allow for increased colonization and development of disease. Protective microora of the colon is most commonly changed due to the use of antibiotic therapy (especially antibiotics with anaerobic coverage). Toxin A primarily recruits inammatory cells but can induce intestinal per meability and cytoskeleton changes. Primary function is unknown but may be associated with increased production of both toxins A and B. While infants have high colonization rates that may be associated with toxin produc tion, they rarely develop colitis due to an underdeveloped immune system or lack of toxin binding receptors in the colon. Most colonized adults remain asymptomatic until their normal protective colonic ora is disrupted. The bacterium was initially called Bacillus dif cilis because it was a rod-shaped bacterium that was difcult to isolate and grow. Cultured colonies have a horse manure odor and appear as at, yellow, and ground-glass colonies with a surrounding yellow halo. The clinical spec trum of infection can range from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis and most commonly occurs shortly following antibiotic exposure (but can occur as long as 60 days after antibiotic therapy). This is the most common manifestation and is typically characterized as more than three loose or watery stools per day for a duration of greater than 24 to 48 hours. This form of illness is usually associated with ileus and/ or toxic megacolon with reduced or absent bowel movements and hypoten sion (i. Pseudomembranous colitis is characterized by raised, yellow, mucosal plaques consisting of leukocytes, tissue debris, blood, and mucus, overlying a necrotic colonic surface epithelium. Typically consists of abdominal cramps and localized discom fort in mild disease. Patients with mild illness are usually afebrile or have a low-grade tem perature; however, patients with severe or fulminant disease are usually febrile (greater than 38. While nausea with vomiting usually occurs with severe fulminant disease, nausea alone may occur with mild disease. An accurate and complete history should be obtained with the physician to focus on the presence of risk factors, such as recent receipt of antimicrobials 20. Characterization of symptoms should include the presence or absence as well as volume of diarrhea, severity and location of associated abdominal pain or cramping, and the presence of subjective fevers, nausea, or anorexia. Infection will almost always be associated with a history of abdominal disten tion, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. A complete examination should be performed, but phy sicians should focus on assessing the severity of illness in order to determine the need for a higher level of care or surgical consultation. With severe protein-losing enter opathy, patients may exhibit signs of ascites, pleural effusions, and soft-tissue edema. Abdominal examination should evaluate for the presence of disten tion and peritoneal signs. Findings of localized or generalized peritonitis are a critically important nding, mandating admission to a monitored unit and urgent surgical consultation. Alternatively, the diagnosis can be presumed in the setting of colonoscopy or histopathology evidence of pseudomembranous colitis. These should always be ordered as severe infection may be indicated by acute kidney failure with an elevated serum creatinine (greater than 1. The proper sample that should be submitted to the laboratory for testing is a watery, loose, or unformed stool. Additionally, routine testing of multiple stools is not recommended due to the increase in false-positive results (especially in the clinical setting of a low pretesting probability for the disease). This is the gold standard diagnostic test but is limited by the need for special culture media, difcult culture conditions, and specialized laboratories required for this method. This is the most com mon method utilized due to an easy and low-cost method; however, the sensitivity is reported as 63% to 94% and specicity is reported as 75% to 100%. A rapid (3 hours) and inexpensive latex agglutination test associated with a sensitivity of 58% to 68% and specicity of 94% to 98%; therefore, the high negative predictive can be useful as a screening test. This method is expensive and requires specialized equipment with reported sensitivities of 96% and specicities of 96% to 100%.

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Having to infection prevention week 2014 buy terramycin 250 mg with visa rely on family members and nurses for simple activities like dressing and bathing was humiliating antimicrobial lights generic terramycin 250mg overnight delivery. It was no mean feat to antibiotic mode of action effective terramycin 250mg relearn to antibiotics for uti septra generic 250mg terramycin free shipping walk independently, but he succeeded after persevering through intense rehabilitation. He counts himself lucky to have survived and regained some functional independence; however, he poignantly points out that going back to his previous pursuits remains impossible. Mr T hopes doctors will continue their research to find a cure for this debilitating condition. He still dreams of being able play basketball again; to do so would be, as he puts it, ‘better than winning the lottery’. After her mother-in-law suffered a stroke 31 years ago, Mdm T quit her job to be her full-time caregiver as well as to raise her young children. Although it was a trying time, she attributes her ability to tide through Mr T’s illness to the ‘training’ she got when caring for her mother-in-law and young children simultaneously. This time, she had to care for both Mr T and her 2 grandchildren as she shuttled between the kindergarten, hospital and home every single day. The ordeal continued even after Mr T was sent home from the rehabilitation hospital. Petite Mdm T struggled to support him as he walked and to deal with her husband’s frustration over his inability to perform simple tasks such as bathing independently, something they took for granted prior to his illness. Reflecting on the entire experience, Mdm T explained, “There will always be difficult times in life but the important thing is to remain strong and keep pushing forward. Mr this now able to walk independently and even squat down to carry his grandchildren! Mdm T smiled fondly when she recounted how the medical team supported her during those difficult weeks, thanking them for their care, comfort and concern which made the experience more bearable. Please wait while I order the appropriate tests to confirm the diagnosis and admit you to the ward for appropriate treatment. However, as we delved deeper into our research, we encountered patients with a myriad of clinical presentations. These include electrophysiological studies, spinal fluid examination and anti-ganglioside antibodies. While we learnt the utility of these tests in our textbooks, we appreciated their limitations in practice. This made us realise the significance of research in advancing knowledge of the disease at an electrophysiological, serological and even molecular level. Confining ourselves to a checklist leaves us blinkered and does a disservice to those whose symptoms are still evolving or lie beyond the fringes of our existing knowledge. Through our observations of clinicians at work and our research, we found that there are several factors useful in sorting this: demographics, antecedent infection, careful delineation of physical findings, serology and electrodiagnosis, especially serial studies [1]. Research in this area has shed light on both the identification of subtypes and on underlying pathogenesis at a molecular level. Despite many years of experience, clinicians and researchers still encounter difficulties in subtyping. We also learnt that dealing with complexity is one of the skills of an astute clinician. We have trained our minds to pick out the defining hallmark of each condition: the ‘black-white stripes that differentiate the zebra from a horse,’ as our mentor often quips. Beyond the utility in prognosticating the individual patient’s expected clinical course, the distinction does not generally affect clinical practice. We learnt that our current methods, while being constantly improved, are still unable to consistently distinguish between subtypes. Nevertheless, questioning the purpose of our research is just as important, if not more so, than the research itself. As we tried to derive a greater meaning from our work, we eventually came to the understanding that although management currently remains the same, the pursuit of knowledge is an end in its own right, and subsequent generations would recoup the benefits of our current work. The Research Process: Entering Uncharted Waters For most of us, this was our maiden foray into research (we now realise we might have entered the pool at the deep end). Before this, our experience with research was mainly limited to reading journal articles and making sense of published work. We were very fortunate to be exposed to both research and clinical work early in our medical school years. On the other hand, research was not a bed of roses as our idealistic selves soon realised; there were so many aspects we had not considered, from fastidiously maintaining a database to securing adequate funding. We also learnt valuable skills such as manuscript preparation and cogent presentation of data. We have not figured it all out yet (and perhaps never will), but the seeds of a future in research have been planted. It is with great anticipation that we look towards a future where more targeted treatment can help patients like Mr T recover faster and better; and we hope we may be able to play a role in making this dream a reality. It is also important we do not lose sight of our goal of research: to alleviate the suffering of patients like Mr T. With so much still a work in progress, we realise it is important to keep an open mind to new solutions, yet not forget the art of applying our currently imperfect knowledge in clinical practice. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge Dr T Umapathi, our supervisor, for his critical review of the article. Uncini A, Kuwabara S (2012) Electrodiagnostic criteria for Guillain-Barre syndrome: a critical revision and the need for an update. Yuki N (2012) Guillain-Barre syndrome and anti-ganglioside antibodies: a clinician-scientist’s journey. Some papers became staple reading material, necessary both to learning the general nature of my subject matter, but also to refer to for the nitty-gritty details needed to make sense of my own data. These tests indicated not a demyelinating disease, but one which appeared to affect motor neuron axons. However, until the work of Ilyas and colleagues in 1988 the target for this autoimmune attack was unknown. Since then, many other studies have confirmed this using various solid-phase assays. Animal models are an essential step in understanding molecular pathogenesis of any disease and in this particular case they served to confirm the importance of an autoimmune response to ganglioside as a triggering step in the process. The generation of these mice, who develop an age-dependent degenerative phenotype, led to further understanding of the roles of gangliosides in nervous system maintenance. On a personal level they have served me faithfully as negative controls in many of my studies which require an interaction between antibody and ganglioside. One of their most useful roles, however, has been their involvement in ganglioside immunisation studies. For our lab, this has led to the use of these mice as hosts for generating many of our in-house anti-ganglioside antibodies. The incorporation of liposomes into our immunisations, as described by Bowes and colleagues, have proved to be an effective way of introducing gangliosides into the mice in a way which at least in part mimics the way gangliosides are presented in the membrane, especially when some ova protein is introduced to elicit T cell help [6]. This protocol has been used to make many in-house monoclonal antibodies against gangliosides, and, more recently, antibodies to other lipids. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2009 the discovery that antibodies against gangliosides are often found in patients’ sera was only the beginning of a very complex (no pun intended) story. These studies, particularly appropriate to this chapter as they were done during her PhD, demonstrated that this organisation of gangliosides is incredibly important for pathogenicity. Journal of Neuroscience, 2014 A development which greatly served my PhD was the generation of new transgenic mice, which only expressed the usually ubiquitous gangliosides on neuronal or glial membranes [10]. For unknown reasons, antibodies directed against gangliosides only result in injury to peripheral nerves, despite the fact that gangliosides are expressed on most cell types in the body. Therefore the production of these mice can allow more effective targeting of anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated attack to disease-relevant sites. For me, whose focus was the neuromuscular junction, this allowed the comparison of binding and injury at the perisynaptic Schwann cells or the motor nerve terminal. It also meant restricting in vivo binding of anti-ganglioside antibody to neuronal or glial sites. International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life, 2011 Gangliosides have very dynamic existences. They are formed in the Golgi complex and transported to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, where they are thought to exist in the already-dynamic lipid rafts. However, they also can be re-endocytosed and post-modified or even degraded into their constituent parts [11].

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They must also avoid sugar antimicrobial nanoparticles terramycin 250 mg with visa, fried foods and other immune compromising substances antibiotics for uti macrodantin discount terramycin 250 mg visa, drink purified water virus back pain discount terramycin 250 mg online, get plenty of outdoor activity antibiotics for acne permanent purchase terramycin 250mg on-line, exercise and quality sleep. If a child is not sick at the time and was properly prepared prior to exposure to what is supposed to be benign childhood illnesses, the risks and rates of serious complications would be dramatically reduced. These same recommendations would be solid advice for all parents wishing to reduce their children’s susceptibility to any illness. Not only will this approach reduce the susceptibility to illness, but if the child does contract one of the many bacterial and viral infections, they will be well prepared for their own immune system to fight and defeat it. Remember, fighting and defeating childhood illnesses is one of the fundamental ways that the immune system develops and matures. If we try to keep our children in a sterile bubble, we are doing them a major dis-service which we will talk about next. A current example of this at work is that public health officials have reversed their stance on the use of antibacterial soaps and hygiene products. They have recognized that attempting to create a sterile environment is interfering with natural immunity and propagating antibiotic resistant germs. Promoting a system that would impart natural immunity as part of an intentional, safe, controlled and inexpensive (free) process, would make sense to anybody who doesn’t stand to make a profit from the current system. Reducing Il-6 is also a key to decreasing the chances of the mother and child from developing autoimmunity. Even soluble fiber and prebiotic fiber have been shown to reduce neuroinflammation in mice. They are key regulators of brain neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation, all having an important role in the prevention and treatment of psychological and behavioural dysfunction disorders. Like we have discussed previously with regard to other genetic defects (polymorphisms), some individuals may be genetically limited in their capacity to process these types of fat. Even those that have genetic polymorphisms, typically respond to higher doses, than someone whose genetic code allows for proper processing. Always check with a health care provider knowledgeable in these matters, to determine what dose is appropriate. Current vaccine exemptions in various states Pay close attention to the attempts by state legislation to restrict your right to exercise an exemption for you or your child. All states except California, Mississippi and West Virginia still offer a religious exemption. To stay current on exemptions I recommend these two resources: the National Vaccine Information Center 543. If you are a parent and get “the letter” from your child’s school warning you that your child will not be able to set foot on school property unless all of their vaccinations are up to date, and your child is not up to date, do not fear if you live in a personal exemption state. For a medical exemption, you will need a letter from your medical provider stating the reason for the request. Reasons include, a history of allergic reaction to an ingredient found in the vaccine or a prior adverse reaction to the same vaccine. Vaccines are pharmaceutical products that carry risks, which can be greater for some than others. Do I or my child have a personal or family history of vaccine reactions, neurological disorders, severe allergies or immune system problems Do I know I need to keep a written record, including the vaccine manufacturer’s name and lot number, for all vaccinations These questions are designed to educate consumers about the importance of making fully informed vaccine decisions Source. There are two main reasons I didn’t want to write a conventional book and sell it through book outlets. The first is that my number one priority is to provide widespread distribution to this vital health and life saving information. Second, was to provide it in such a way that all of my statements, claims and sources could be easily verified with a mouse-click. The truth and substantiation to peer reviewed scientific literature to this information was essential. Financial compensation for my time was a distant consideration compared to those reasons. If you feel that you have been blessed in any way by your free access to this document and the ability to easily share it and would like to donate to my efforts, that would be amazing and greatly appreciated. Please consider donating to offset the costs for producing this eBook Donate here Thank you for your contribution to this effort! They are usually located on the toolbar at the top of the page Forward the link to this e-Book to your state and federal representatives and senators Their contact information can be found here To locate your Federal Representatives to Congress, go to either of these sites. This free eBook is the most researched and scientific expose on the safety and effectiveness of vaccines. It is searchable, with instant access to any page from the Table of Contents and allows for direct link connection to the content’s sources and information right from our own government’s scientific database, called PubMed. There is so much more that could have been included, but at some point, I had to call it quits and get it out there. The point is, that there is such overwhelming evidence of major problems with the current system. More evidence of that emerges every week and the reports of adverse vaccine reactions continue to pile up, as does the payments to vaccine injured children and adults. Families and children’s lives are destroyed and sometimes it seems that no one cares. But just know that there is a growing number of people that do care and are willing to take a stand. And it’s up to each and every one of us to share this story and become active in our communities, working hard to get the truth out. Closing Remarks Going forward I’m going to make a couple relevant points using spirituality as an example, because there are some good correlations to the vaccine conversation. There is the possibility that they could all be wrong, but one thing for sure is that they all can’t be right. Each person has to decide where they’re going to stake their claim, their trust, their faith. We all put our faith and trust in something whether its ourselves, our spouses, our money, our career or a higher being. Study the evidence, make your decision and then hold fast to your convictions Since I have always been an evidence-based person, I like to analyze things before making up my mind about it. From a spiritual perspective, I have decided that Christianity makes the most sense and aligns with my spirit, therefore I have adopted a Christian world-view. I’ve put my faith and trust in Jesus Christ, in part because I have looked at all the evidence and come to that conclusion and in part because my spirit has felt drawn to Him. On the intellectual side, I’ve read several books by devout atheist attorneys and investigators, that set out to disprove Christianity but came full circle after examining the evidence. I’ve 548 considered the hundreds of Old Testament prophecies that were all fulfilled, including the ones about the life, death and resurrection of Jesus. The odds of every one of those prophecies being fulfilled are infinitesimal, yet they were. His eleven disciples (after Judas’s betrayal and demise), went from frightened doubters after seeing him die on the cross, to turning 180 degrees in their belief after seeing him alive again (along with over 500 other witnesses). And making known their convictions, they proclaimed his resurrection, standing firm in their testimony even to the point of being willing to be martyred for their faith decades later after boldly spreading the “Good News”. If they wouldn’t have been absolutely and totally convinced that he rose from the dead, they would have just walked away and lived a comfortable, happy, easy and unassuming life. So, like any life altering decision (and considering vaccination can be just that), a person needs to consider all the facts and evidence including the extenuating circumstances and decide what is true. Then they need to stand firm in their convictions and if they feel called, spread the news to others. If a preponderance of new evidence comes to life, we should all be willing to look at and consider it. We have all heard of the person convicted of murder that serves decades in prison until new facts come to life and they are exonerated and released.

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