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If travel arrangements can?t be changed 166 to medicine expiration dates 35mg residronate with amex include her treatment urticaria discount residronate 35 mg otc, the girl could be given the option to treatment yeast infection male cheap 35mg residronate with visa join the troop after the trip medications migraine headaches residronate 35mg line, or join another troop if one exists. Troop Member Transfers When a girl leaves a troop, for whatever reason, she relinquishes any claim on money she helped earn for the troop. In all cases, if a donation is made, a check should be written directly to the receiving troop. It is our practice, however, to allow girls to vote on what to do with troop funds, using the following guidelines. The group leader signs the final report and submits it to the Service Unit Director with a copy of the most recent bank statement. As when closing a personal account, be sure all checks and other debits have cleared the account before you close it, and realize that you may have to close the account in person. Financial Assistance Financial aid is available to individual members who need assistance with annual membership dues, uniform components, Girl Scout program-level handbooks, and for some events or activities. Financial assistance for volunteers is limited to volunteers registered as troop coleaders, not to exceed three volunteer members per troop. Troops are strongly encouraged to use troop funds toward membership dues of girls and volunteers before seeking financial assistance with membership from the Council. Othertypes of assistancethatmay be available: Summer Sleep Away or Day Camp request assistance with summer sleep away or day camp fees by completing the form located in the camp brochure, destinations request assistance for a destination travel adventure by using the destinations Scholarship Application Form that is sent to girls upon acceptance from the Council sponsoring the event or trip. Service Unit Funds the service unit exists to support troop/group volunteers and programs. In order to cover related administrative costs and create opportunities for inter-troop activities, service units develop an operating budget or financial plan, which should be proposed at a regular service unit meeting and accepted, with or without modification, by the service unit members (all registered volunteers in the service unit area). Service units may request a small annual fee not to exceed $5 per girl per year to cover their operating costs. A girl will not be denied membership because her family is unable to pay service unit dues. Many service units rely on planned service unit events and projects (T-shirts, patch sales, car washes, sock hops, etc. These and any other sources of revenue must tie into an overall financial plan (budget) approved by the Volunteer Support Specialist. A report from the Service Unit Treasurer should be a part of each service unit meeting, or, a quarterly report should be sent to each troop or posted on the service unit Web site. A year-end financial report with current bank statement should be submitted to the Volunteer Support Specialist by June 15 of each year. All girl members are eligible to participate in these council-sponsored product sale activities each year with volunteer supervision. Please remember, volunteers and Girl Scout council staff don?t sell cookies and other products?girls do. Girls participation in both Council-sponsored product program activities and group money-earning projects is based upon the following: 168? There are a few specific guidelines?some required by the Internal Revenue Service?that ensure that sales are conducted with legal and financial integrity. We strongly encourage volunteers to model honest and fair behavior in all program practices. Girls can, however, be awarded incentives and/or may earn credits from their Girl Scout product programs. Funds acquired through group money-earning projects must be reported and accounted for by the group, while following Council procedures. New troops that form after one or both product programs may conduct limited money-earning activities if needed to fund planned troop activities. The Service Unit Director or designee is charged with reviewing the application and submitting it to the Volunteer Support Specialist at least two (2) weeks prior to the event. When using the Beyond the Troop Event Application it is not necessary to submit a Money Earning Application. Troops must complete and submit to the Service Unit Director or designee a report on the results of the money-earning activity within two (2) weeks after the activity. This includes participating in walka-thons, telethons, selling coupon books, tickets or gift cards, products sales parties or other similar home party sales, the sale of commercial products or similar fundraising opportunities. Please note that moneyearning events involving multiple Girl Scout troops or non-members (such as a father/mother daughter dance, Badge work day, etc. Community organizations, businesses, religious organizations, and individuals may be sponsors and may provide group meeting places, volunteer their time, offer inkind donations, provide activity materials, or loan equipment. For information on working with a sponsor, consult your council, which can give you guidance on the availability of sponsors, recruiting responsibility, and any council policies or practices that must be followed. Your council may already have relationships with certain organizations or may know of some reasons not to collaborate with certain organizations. In order to meet Annual Fund goals, volunteers are encouraged to solicit donations from parents. Service unit volunteers may solicit local businesses and individuals to make contributions to the Girl Scout Annual Fund. A local business is defined as a business whose primary customer base is confined to a local area or neighborhood. Contact the Fund Development Department to determine if an individual or business is a current donor by calling 770-702-9249. When soliciting donations from a local source, you may be referred to a regional, district or corporate office. Volunteer Service Grants or Matching Gifts from your employer are considered grants to support Girl Scouts of Greater Atlanta as a 501(c)(3). Local restaurants may be approached at the service unit level to host a Girl Scout Night to promote membership, product programs and local community projects. Please note that it is not within Girl Scout standards for girls or volunteers to sell tickets, gift cards or coupons and that Girl Scouts cannot endorse a restaurant or product. You and your troop can, however, support another organization through behind-the-scenes Take Action or service projects. Individual girls, who are not acting as Girl Scouts or on behalf of Girl Scouts and are not wearing anything that would identify them as Girl Scouts, may participate in charity and other fund-raisers as they (or their families) see fit. Neither letter-writing campaigns nor participation in political rallies, petition circulation or carrying political banners is allowed. Since 1939, girls and volunteers have not been allowed to endorse, provide a testimonial for, or sell such products. Understanding the Girl Scout Cookie Program Did you know that the Girl Scout Cookie Program powers amazing experiences for girls? The Girl Scout Cookie Program, is the leading entrepreneurial program for girls: no university has produced as many female business owners as the Girl Scout Cookie Program has. Council-sponsored product programs are really the best way for girls to earn money to pursue their goals: the sales are beloved by the community and come with program, sales, and marketing materials and support that help girls run a great business. With every season of cookies, another generation of girls learns five important skills:? Goal setting Girls who set goals are more likely to reach or exceed those goals from selling cookies or magazines to completing their science project on time! A Sweet Tradition It has been decades since Girl Scouts began selling home-baked cookies to raise money. The idea was so popular that, in 1936, Girl Scouts enlisted bakers to handle the growing demand. Each baker gets to name its own cookies (which is why some cookies have two names) and gets to decide which flavors it will offer in a given 175 year, besides the three mandatory flavors (Thin Mints, Do-Si-Dos?/Peanut Butter Sandwich, and Trefoils/Shortbread). For additional information on cookie varieties, including nutritional details, visit We also establish guidelines and procedures for conducting the product program and determines how the proceeds and girl reward system will be managed. Proceeds resulting from product program support program activities?in fact, council-sponsored product program are a primary way in which your council raises funds to support Girl Scouting. The percentage of money to be allocated to participating groups (like yours) is determined by your council and explained to girls and volunteers as part of the product sale activity orientation. The income from product program does not become the property of individual girl members. Girls, however, may be eligible for rewards and credits that they put toward Council sponsored camps, programs and programmatic materials. Girls may earn official Girl Scout grade-appropriate rewards related to product sale activities, and each council may choose to provide items such as participation patches, rewards, and council credit for event fees, camp fees, grants for travel and Take Action projects, as well as materials and supplies for program activities.

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With partial evulsion treatment for pink eye generic residronate 35 mg, the final vision is Evacuation of an Orbital Hematoma dependent upon the extent and location of injury symptoms zika virus discount 35mg residronate visa. Dramatic visual improvement has been reported following transethmoidal optic canal decompression symptoms nervous breakdown residronate 35mg with visa. Visual recovery was spontaneous in necrosis medicine identifier order 35 mg residronate free shipping, impaired wound healing, and immunoboth cases and the final acuity ranged from counting fingers to suppression are generally not an issue. The clinician must weigh the risks of interMany alternative methods of treatment are curvention against these theoretical benefits in deciding rently being explored. Posttraumatic venous obstructive retinopavisual recovery following delayed drainage. Traumatic lesion of tions of the visual system in the acute phase after head the optic nerve. Indirect injury of chotropic cannabinoid, produces shortand long-term the optic nerve. Optic nerve blindtreatment of traumatic optic neuropathy: the Internaness following blunt forehead trauma. Trauma Involving the Anterior Visual Pathclinical, electrophysiological, and histological remarks. San Francisco: optic nerve decompression for traumatic optic neuAmerican Academy of Ophthalmology; 1996:179?197. Results Treatment of traumatic optic neuropathy with cortiof the Second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. We also have members at the University of Bristol, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Brunel University. Acknowledgements the authors are grateful to Jenny Dunn and Andrea Shippam for administrative support. The following also provided support and assistance at various stages of the project: Sonia Rizzo, Tony Mead, Anthea Sutton, Rachel Archer, Tim Gomersall, Joanna Leaviss, Sue Harnan and Lesley Uttley. We received invaluable expert assistance from a number of sources including Greg Fell, Daphne Austin, Bernard Chang and others at the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, Shakeel Herwitker, Nick Precious and Frank Ahfat. Referencing this report should be referenced as follows: Bevacizumab in eye conditions: Issues related to quality, use, efficacy and safety. The authors do not take responsibility for the propriety, errors, mis-representations or quality of any information, statements or conclusions in the accessed documentation. The views, and any errors or omissions, expressed in this document are of the authors only. Whilst bevacizumab does not have a license for ocular use, it is a much less costly alternative. Intravitreal use requires much smaller doses which are produced by breaking open a vial and drawing them up into a fine syringe to deliver small volumes. Many doses for the eye can be produced from a single bevacizumab vial and therefore can be supplied for a much lower cost of approximately? This is one of the reasons that bevacizumab has been used in this manner since 1-3 2005. The process of manipulating bevacizumab supplied for use in oncology is not undertaken by the sponsor (Roche) and there have been concerns raised about the risks to patients introduced via this process. In this report we provide evidence on four issues relating to the use of bevacizumab in eye conditions. An individual vial of bevacizumab is opened and drawn up into a fine syringe designed to deliver small volumes. There is some dead space within the syringe and so some of the drug will be wasted. Even so it can be seen that one vial of bevacizumab can provide many doses for use in the eye, and this contributes to the much lower cost. This process can either be performed by the hospital pharmacist for same day use or it can be manufactured on a larger scale by specialist units. There is potentially a greater risk of contamination despite the fact that this is performed under strict sterile conditions because doses will be drawn from a vial over several days, requiring repeated puncturing of the rubber seal and greater operator error as one or more pharmacists in each hospital may be involved. The larger scale manufacturing units are more recent and carry out repackaging in bulk under tightly controlled conditions. One hundred and forty three respondents gave a response to this question (excluding 44 N/As). This process can be complex and costly, but is undertaken to establish the safety of extending the shelf-life of the product given the specific circumstances in which it is being manufactured. Infectious endophthalmitis is a medical emergency which can lead to loss of vision or even the eye itself. The warning stated that Health care professionals should be aware that repackaging sterile drugs without proper aseptic technique can compromise product sterility, potentially putting the patient at risk for microbial infections. Health care professionals should ensure that drug products are obtained from appropriate, reliable sources and properly administered. The most likely cause of this 7 outbreak was contamination during syringe preparation by the compounding pharmacy. There were 25 reports of signs and symptoms consistent with sterile endophthalmitis or uveitis suspected to be due to bevacizumab supplied by Moorfields in February 2012 which prompted a 9 recall of several batches and a suspension of production as a precaution. A mapping process was adopted to identify and retrieve documents that suggested, recommended or supported the use of bevacizumab in the non-private health sectors in England, Scotland and Wales. Searching within these websites was possible by the presence of a search box within the site homepage. Of the searchable web-pages, 12 there were 28 distinct links to information that suggested, recommended or supported the use of bevacizumab in eye conditions. The document indicated a commissioning position to routinely fund intra-vitreal Avastin injection for use in choroidal neovascular membrane secondary to myopia, inflammatory retinal disease, inherited retinal disease and trauma up to a maximum of 4 injections. Brighton and Hove City Neovascular glaucoma Bevacizumab as a treatment for neovascular glaucoma [Policy. However, it was noted that the decision will be reviewed following available data from further comparative randomised studies. Patients agreeing to participate will be free to leave the trial and receive ranibizumab if they so wish, at any time. Summary pdf#search="bevacizumab" Bevacizumab use in patients is based on specified criteria and policy restrictions. This document records the discussion of recommendations of the Prescribing Forum in the off-license use of drugs, including Avastin. It is noted that the Professional Executive committee had supported its use in Age-related macular degeneration. The patient information sheet lists Avastin as one of the treatment options, and also provides information about its unlicensed use in this setting. Proposed date of completion: December 2012 Birmingham Eye Hospitals Various conditions Avastin is included in list of available. From the existing evidence, it was unclear whether bevacizumab was the first-line of treatment in selected eye conditions in most situations. Bevacizumab was also recommended to improve side effects and reduce the use of Lucentis in unspecified 13 settings. In 39 out of 50 states the rate of 17 injection was higher with bevacizumab than ranibizumab. Medicare is the national social insurance programme that provides coverage for those aged 65 years and over, as well as some young people with certain disabilities. It is worth noting here that patients typically pay 20% of the drug cost under Medicare coverage. These choices were often influenced by the socioeconomic status of the patient, which is relevant because ranibizumab is substantially more expensive than bevacizumab and is not fully covered by Israeli health funds. The International Intravitreal Bevacizumab Survey primarily reported adverse events following the use of bevacizumab for ocular conditions in 70 centres across 12 countries and 4 continents. The survey utilised a web-based questionnaire to collect data on individual centres; data included details of the centre and contributing physicians, number of patients treated and number of administered injections during the course of treatment. The survey reported that 5,228 patients received 7,113 injections during the study period (Nov 2005 to April 2006), with participating centres reporting a mean of 75 patients (median: 40; range: 1-506) and a mean of 102 injections (median: 50; range: 1691). Further details needed to identify centres or participating countries were not available from the publication. However, it is of note that the authors conclude that Intravitreal bevacizumab is being used globally for ocular diseases. Those that do may be out of date and therefore not fully representative of current policy. Identified reports indicate general policy stances in relation to bevacizumab and, in general, consider it as an option alongside the licensed alternatives.

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However treatment xanthelasma eyelid generic residronate 35 mg line, no single approach to symptoms gallbladder buy residronate 35mg overnight delivery (Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell lymphomas symptoms 3 days after embryo transfer purchase residronate 35 mg on line, including the objective evaluation of biopsy findings has yet been mycosis fungoides) hb treatment residronate 35 mg low cost, disseminated tuberculosis, bronchiolitis validated or evaluated prospectively. These are usually clinically evident at that presents with hematuria and minimal proteinuria is the time of biopsy. Outcomes do not 217 a dose-dependent effect that is independent of other risk differ between sexes. The threshold above which the risk presentation in children, even though there is a similar rate develops in adults is uncertain; some studies indicate of kidney function decline. Since the risk factors presented above have been 474,477 when time-averaged proteinuria was above 1 g/d. A validated in both children and adults, clinicians should large observational study demonstrated that a reduction of consider these before the age of the patient. Similarly, it is proteinuria to o1 g/d carried the same favorable impact on uncertain whether geographical or ethnic variations in long-term outcome, whether the initial value was 1?2 g/d, outcomes are secondary to different biopsy and treatment 477 475 2?3 g/d, or 43 g/d. Macroscopic come, such as a 50% decline in proteinuria, have been hematuria is more frequent in children, and some studies have 482 used. In children, observational studies have also conassociated its presence with a favorable outcome, while others sistently shown a relationship between the level of proteinhave shown this bene? Graded) Numerous studies have addressed the predictive value of 489,490 pathology? Patients who presented with ity; (ii) segmental glomerulosclerosis; (iii) endocapillary Z3 g/d who achieved proteinuria o1 g/d had a similar hypercellularity; and (iv) tubular atrophy/interstitial? There was complete remission of 2 with rapidly deteriorating kidney function proteinuria (o0. After a median K There is insufficient evidence that immunosuppressive follow-up of 4. Given 526 these results and the potential side-effects, we do not suggest given for 6 months over controls. The reasons for adults, tested azathioprine and corticosteroids in patients heterogeneity of outcome require further investigation, but with preserved kidney function. They demonstrated a different ethnicity or differences in drug levels achieved may reduction in chronic lesions compared to controls on repeat be contributory factors. However, another prospective proteinuria Z1 g/d, despite 3?6 trial reported that high (6. Importantly, the effect of antiplatelet agents alone Kidney International Supplements (2012) 2, 209?217 213 chapter 10 could not be discerned because patients received other hyperlipidemia) are uncommon. In function worsening, there is no imthese studies, tonsillectomy was often combined with other provement. Durations of were divided into four groups: group 1, absence of crescents treatment in these three series varied from 3 to 24 months. In a study of Supplementary Table 48: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews on immunosuppression for IgA nephropathy. In another study, although an improved outSupplementary Table 51: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews on immunosuppression for IgA nephropathy. Supplementary Table 65: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews on Supplementary material is linked to the online version of the paper at antiplatelet therapy for IgA nephropathy. Ninety percent of support the use of corticosteroids in children with established 561 children had developed kidney involvement by 8 weeks after nephritis of any severity, though corticosteroids are widely acute presentation, while 97% developed kidney involvement used in children presenting with nephrotic-range proteinuria by 6 months. Seven 2 while proteinuria 420 mg/m /h was associated with recurof 36 children (19%) in the prednisone group still had kidney 557 rence and severe abdominal pain. There are no data, other than reducing proteinuria during follow-up periods of up to small observational studies, examining the treatment of 511 510 48 months or 96 months. Treatment with prednisone and azathioprine resulted in improvement in acuity score but not chronicity score. Corticosteroids were not K There is moderate-quality evidence to recommend that administered to these children. The investigators uria, hypertension with/without reduced kidney function) commented that the small population size did not permit between children treated with prednisone or placebo at de? The objective is to rapidly decrease kidney inflamor a repeat kidney biopsy be performed to mation by initial intensive treatment, and then consolidate guide further treatment. Chronic lesions include follow-up, this combination decreased the frequency of segmental and global glomerulosclerosis. However, if the histologic lesions are mainly chronic K the efficacy of newer initial treatment regimens should (see Rationale) there may be less overt clinical activity, other be assessed not only by initial responses, but also by longthan progressive kidney failure. Untested Effective in whites, blacks, Chinese; Effective in whites, blacks, Hispanics, Chinese in blacks, Hispanics, Chinese easy to administer and lower blacks, Hispanics, cost than i. More adverse effects cyclophosphamide as initial therapy combined with corti617 have been reported with oral compared to i. Cyclophosphamide was used in a different regimen Mycophenolate than in most published trials: eight i. This regimen has not yet been regimens as initial treatment: corticosteroids combined with evaluated in other ethnic groups. Importantly, this low-dose cyclopho(median 44 months after treatment), whereas patients sphamide regimen had similar long-term outcomes (mean 603 receiving corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide (or other follow-up of 10 years) to Regimen A (Online Suppl immunosuppressive drugs) had no change in the chronicity Table 77). In this trial, the majority of patients were white, 619 index, suggesting the immunosuppressive drugs prevented and most patients did not have clinically severe disease. A criticism of these studies is Therefore, it is not certain whether this protocol will be the small number of patients, especially during long-term effective in patients of other ancestry, or in patients with follow-up. The basis for this approach was three small studies receiving oral cyclophosphamide, i. Similar results were found in an 620 626 patients with CrCl 25?50 and 10?25 ml/min, respectively. At 12 months, however, there were no must be timed carefully in relation to cyclophosphamide to differences between the rituximab and placebo groups in maximize bene? Although not designed cyclophosphamide therapy were shown to have an increased to compare the long-term ef? Decisions factor for kidney relapse, while other studies found that to alter therapy should not be based on urine sediment alone. A repeat kidney biopsy may be considered if kidney function A survey of several retrospective studies shows that the one is deteriorating. The average duration of immunosuprespond to therapy and kidney relapse were risk factors for 599,600,603,604,609,612,615,638 649 pression was 3. There are not yet Immunosuppression should be continued for patients any more sensitive biomarkers of kidney response in lupus of 650 who achieve only a partial remission. A caveat is that there may be may be an may be more active, and kidney impairment is more likely. Both cyclophosphamide and cycloelectron microscopy show only subepithelial immune comsporine signi? In the same study, the range, with or without hematuria; kidney function is usually only independent predictor of failure to achieve remission Kidney International Supplements (2012) 2, 221?232 227 chapter 12 (by multivariate analysis) was initial proteinuria over 5 g/d. In general, these studies have shown complete remission rates of 40?60% at severe kidney impairment, usually accompanied by protei6?12 months. Also, a recent retrospective study found clinically considered for treatment with rituximab, i. There is to repeat biopsy and determine if there has been a change no consensus on the de? This antiphospholipid antibody?negative are treated in the same use of rituximab is in contrast to its lack of utility as add-on way as antibody-positive patients. The aspirin during pregnancy to decrease the research recommendations made under 12. Caucasian, so the results may not be applicable to other Supplementary Table 74: Existing systematic review on Cyc vs. They are characcorticosteroids and cyclophosphamide that has dramatiterized by little or no deposition of immune complexes in cally improved the shortand long-term outcomes of the vessel wall (pauci-immune). The K All patients with extrarenal manifestations of disease characteristic kidney lesion in these conditions is paucishould receive immunosuppressive therapy regardless of immune focal and segmental necrotizing and crescentic the degree of kidney dysfunction. Vasculitis: Seven treatments over 14 days If diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, daily until the bleeding stops, then every other day, total 7?10 treatments. Add 150?300ml fresh frozen plasma at the end of each pheresis session if patients have pulmonary hemorrhage, or have had recent surgery, including kidney biopsy. All patients with extrarenal K There is low-quality evidence that plasmapheresis promanifestations of disease should receive immunosuppressive vides additional benefit for diffuse pulmonary hemortherapy, regardless of the degree of kidney dysfunction.

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When challenged to medications errors pictures best residronate 35mg predetermine how much is needed to treatment xanthelasma eyelid buy cheap residronate 35mg individualize medicine q10 buy residronate 35 mg with visa, it depends on how 9 medicine gustav klimt discount residronate 35 mg on-line. Because the prints have reduced quality of details, ative sciences that rely upon uniqueness and persistency the prints must have suffcient quantity of details of these in the source to make determinations. Suffciency for same source deterthe gray quality and quantity axes intersect at zero. The prints can apquality relies upon quantity just as quantity relies upon proach perfect and complete recording of all the details quality. Insuffciency is of all the features of the skin, but will never reach perfecrepresented by black. Since nature is unique, there can never be a perfect facing with the gray curve, suffciency is reached. The curves actually ment is the minimum needed to determine the two prints continue. The quality axis approaches, but cannot reach, had been made by different unique and persistent sources. The quantity axis this is why the threshold model is based on the value of approaches, but cannot reach, complete recording of all quality times quantity equaling one. The model cannot determine the actual threshold of absolute minidepicts reality and practicality at the same time. Therefore, the the curve on the right side represents suffciency of examiner must go beyond the theoretical minimum threshagreement of details for the evaluation phase. This curve old of one, through the gray doubt area to the curves, and also represents suffciency of details in the analysis and transition to knowing and believing the determination. The curve on the left side represents understanding of suffciency becomes fxated beyond the suffciency of disagreement of details for the comparison gray doubt, in the white area. These are two separate and distinct Defning the physical attributes of one unit of uniqueness positive curves, mirror images of each other. The curves using common terms is diffcult, if not impossible, because must be separate and distinct. Less clarity of agreement of unique details in two prints from unique and many details increases the need to have more quantity of persistent source(s) cannot exist at the same time. Sequences and alignments of deprints from different unique and persistent sources cannot tails and features must be studied to develop expertise and have two, four, six, or any number of details that actually understand uniqueness. The examiner then selects and stores some of the cannot determine whether the details of unique features of details of the frst print as a target group in memory. The general direction with, possibly, limited sequences and examiner cannot determine the suffciency of sequences confgurations of some secondand third-level details. Persisthe model also depicts the three decisions that can tency of the features of the skin must be considered when be reached after conducting analyses, comparisons, selecting and then searching for a target. The examiner and evaluations: normally selects targets that are distinct and occur near. Agreement (white area): Suffcient details agree and the delta, core, or interfaces of details of ridges, creases, support a determination that the prints came from the scars, and imperfections, because it should be easy to same source. An and warrant a determination that the prints came from example would be a tenprint card. Inconclusive (gray and black areas): the examiner can comparison, and evaluation blending. The frst level ridge fow and sequences and confgurations of the target group of details of the frst print are the interface position between black and gray is fxed. The black is insufnot located in the second print, a second target group in fciency, less than the value of 1. The upper limit of the gray can expand away from then searched in the second print. As always, the selecthe black to represent less expertise or more doubt, or tion of a number of target groups of frst, second, and, if contract toward the black to represent more expertise or needed, third levels of details of ridges, creases, scars, or less doubt. The width of the gray also represents individual daily variations Once a similar target group is located in the second imwithin the examiner. The human factor must actual agreement in the target and neighboring details, the be considered when making determinations. The examexaminer determines the two prints were produced by the iner must remember, when in doubt, don?t and do not same source. The gray also represents the interaction of the examiner with the method and threshold. The second and fourth columns have colored markings to show the corresponding ridge fow and details. The individual prints within the aggregate are from individual If the target groups from the frst print seem to be found areas or ridge sources, all from the one aggregate source in the second print, but the determination of agreement or of one person. Just as with frst print cannot be actually excluded from occurring in the individual prints, the examiner needs to be able to defend features of the source of the second print, an inconclusive the aggregate based on research, training, experience, evaluation is warranted. The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nadocument expert perception is analysis, comparison, and ture; Oxford University Press: New York, 1999. Confrmation Bias, Ethics, and Mistakes in Fothird levels of detail of the features of the source is used rensics. Behavioral and Electrophysiological threshold, based on unique detail and expertise, is used to Evidence for Confgural Processing in Fingerprint Experts. Likewise, quantity of details of unique feaBranch of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police: Ottawa, tures of the source need a corresponding quality of details 1980. Edmond Locard-Numerical Standards and the examination method needs the examiner to make Probable Identifcations. What is needed is for scientists to collabocation of Fingerprints; Elsevier Science: New York, 1983. There is more to print comparisons than Emotions Get the Better of Us: the Effect of Contextual counting to a predetermined threshold of a limited number Top-Down Processing on Matching Fingerprints. Applied of generically labeled parts within the wonderfully unique Cognitive Psychol. Contextual Information Renders Experts Vulnerable to Making Erroneous Identifcations. A Review of the Sixteen Points FinHutchins, Alice Maceo, Charles Richardson, Jon T. Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced RidgeolGrieve, D. Interim Report of the Standardization Commiting Quality and Quantity of Information. Scientifc Comparison and Identifcation of Guide for the Identifcation Sciences From the Laboratory Fingerprint Evidence. Speculation in Fingerprint Identifcation; Srijib Chatterjee: Calcutta, India, 1983. Fingerprints or Dactyloscopy and Ridgeoscopy; Srijib Chatterjee: Calcutta, India, 1988. The Human Science of Communicology: A Phenomenology of Discourse in Foucault and Merleau-Ponty; Hazen, R. Identifcation of Individuals by Means of Fingerprints, Palmprints, and Soleprints. Fingerprints and the Law; Chilton Book Identity: An Unresolved Dichotomy of Terms. Maceo In science, documentation is crucial to evaluate results and to test the validity of experimental research. Laboratories operate in two realms: (1) using established methods under standard operating procedures to answer routine questions or (2) using experimentation to develop new methods to answer novel questions. An example of the former laboratory would be an analytical laboratory that routinely tests water samples for the concentration of dissolved oxygen. This laboratory uses established methods and procedures for each sample and reports the results. An example of the latter type of laboratory would be a research laboratory that develops a new, more effcient method for testing the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Depending on the type of laboratory, analytical or research, the level of documentation will vary.

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