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A stent is a small erectile dysfunction needle injection video 80mg super levitra visa, metal mesh tube that holds open the narrowed or blocked part of your artery erectile dysfunction medication for sale discount super levitra 80 mg with visa. The doctor will thread the stent through a catheter to erectile dysfunction specialist doctor cheap super levitra 80mg fast delivery the diseased artery and open the stent Popliteal with a small balloon erectile dysfunction drugs non prescription buy super levitra 80mg otc. Patients are usually awake during the stenting procedure, but your doctor will give you some medicine to help you relax. Tibial (Please refer to the section titled “The Procedure” for additional information on this procedure. Patients are usually awake Aorta during the procedure, but your doctor will give you some medicine to help you relax. Renal (Please refer to the section titled “The Procedure” for Common Inferior additional information on this procedure. The medicines may be in addition to, or Popliteal in place of any of the procedures listed above. Tibial Peroneal 12 the Procedure this section describes the procedure for balloon angioplasty, stent implantation and atherectomy. Your doctor will also visit you in your hospital room to discuss the procedure in detail and tell you the approximate time the procedure is scheduled. He or she will explain the possible risks and benefits and answer any questions you or your family may have. Be sure to tell your doctor what medications you the Cath Lab are currently taking. You should also tell your doctor about any allergies you have to metal, medications, X-ray dye or iodine. It is also important to let your doctor know if you cannot take Guiding Catheter aspirin, since this and other medications are usually (Illustration of the Coronary Procedure) begun prior to a procedure and continued for several months thereafter. You will probably be asked not to eat or drink anything after midnight on the night before your procedure. Finally, if you have not already stopped smoking, your doctor may recommend that you do so prior to being admitted to the hospital in preparation for the upcoming procedure. If you have dentures or glasses and want to wear them, ask your nurse about hospital policy. Just before you leave your room, empty your bladder so you will be comfortable during the procedure. You may be given a mild sedative to help you relax, but you will not be put to sleep. First, most people find they can cope quite well with any discomfort they experience. Second, your doctor may need to ask you to take a deep breath while X-rays are being taken to improve the quality of the pictures. Fluids or medications can be given quickly and easily through this tube if they are needed. The area where the catheters are to be inserted, Guiding Catheter either your groin, arm or wrist, will be scrubbed with (Illustration of the Coronary Procedure) an antiseptic solution to prevent infection. Your doctor will inject a local anesthetic (numbing medicine) where the catheters will be inserted. However, after the medication takes effect, you should only feel dull pressure where the physician is working with the catheters. The procedure usually lasts about 90 minutes, during which time your doctor will ask you to remain very still. For the most part, you will be comfortable but you may feel some pressure or chest pain when the balloon is inflated. The Procedure the Catheterization Laboratory Your procedure will be performed in a catheterization laboratory (cath lab) or a special procedure radiology suite. You will lie on an X-ray table, and an X-ray camera will move over you during the procedure. Inserting the Guiding Catheter Catheter introduction into the groin requires a small incision to be made on the inside of your upper thigh. This incision will allow an introducer sheath (short the Cath Lab tube) to be inserted into your femoral artery. Your doctor will then insert a guiding catheter (long, flexible tube) into the introducer sheath and advance it to the affected artery. Guiding Catheter Additional options for catheter introduction are the (Illustration of the Coronary Procedure) arm/ brachial approach (incision is made on the inside of your elbow) and the transradial approach (incision is made on the inside of your wrist). Injecting the Dye After the catheters are inserted, your doctor will inject a dye/contrast material through the guiding catheter into your artery to view the narrowing. While these X-rays are being taken, your doctor may ask you to take a deep breath and hold it for a few seconds. You may also be asked to cough after the X-ray picture is completed to help speed the removal of the X-ray dye from the arteries. A guide wire inside the balloon catheter is then advanced through the artery until the tip is beyond the narrowing. Step 2 Next, the angioplasty catheter is moved over the guide wire until the balloon is within the narrowed segment. The Cath Lab Step 3 Guiding Catheter the balloon is inflated, (Illustration of the Coronary Procedure) compressing the plaque against the artery wall. Step 4 Once the plaque has been compressed and the artery has been opened sufficiently, the balloon catheter will be deflated and removed. Step 2 the Cath Lab the balloon is inflated and causes the stent to expand until it fits the inner wall of the vessel, conforming to the contours as needed. Guiding Catheter (Illustration of the Coronary Procedure) Step 3 the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn. The stent stays in place permanently, holding the vessel open and improving the flow of blood. Step 2 the Cath Lab A balloon on one side of the catheter tip is inflated, causing the plaque on the opposite wall of the artery to protrude into the window of the cutting device. Guiding Catheter the rotating cutter shaves off (Illustration of the Coronary Procedure) this portion of the plaque, which is then stored in the collection chamber of the catheter. While you are in bed, a nurse will check the site where the catheter was inserted as well as the pulses in your feet and arms. If your groin was used for the procedure, you can expect to stay in bed for several hours. The introducer sheath is usually removed within six hours of the procedure, but may be left in longer if heparin, a the Cath Lab medication given during your procedure, is continued. While the introducer sheath is in place, and for about six hours after its removal, you will lie flat on your back in bed, keeping your leg with the sheath straight and still. To remove the introducer sheath, a nurse or Guiding Catheter doctor will put pressure on the puncture site for 20 to (Illustration of the Coronary Procedure) 30 minutes, or until there is no bleeding. Alternatively, your doctor may use a vascular closure device to seal the puncture site in your groin or arm. You will be allowed to get up and walk around sooner if this type of device is used. Although bleeding will be unlikely at this time, if you feel a warm, wet sensation or sharp pain in the area of the puncture, call a nurse at once. If your arm was used for the procedure, you may be allowed to sit up afterwards, but you may be asked to stay in bed for several hours. More >> 19 the Procedure If you get back pain from lying still, your nurse can help make you more comfortable. Your nurse may also be able to elevate the head of your bed slightly to help relieve back pain. If tests suggest that the pain may indicate a problem with the dilated artery, it may be necessary to take additional X-ray pictures of the artery before you go the Cath Lab home. A return of chest pain is unusual beyond the first thirty minutes after the procedure. You will also be asked to drink extra fluids so that your kidneys can get rid of this dye more easily. If you need help with any activity during this time (for example, in using the bedpan or bathroom), ask a nurse to help you. You will return to your hospital room where you will be watched closely by the nursing staff. If your groin was used for the procedure, you should expect to stay in bed for several hours.

Educating them is one of the most important things you can do to erectile dysfunction medicine in ayurveda 80 mg super levitra sale help your child at school erectile dysfunction effects cheap super levitra 80mg without prescription. The next topic in this section What Should You Tell Others about Your Child’s Epilepsy Also erectile dysfunction causes and cures cheap super levitra 80 mg without prescription, use the What Everyone Should Know fact sheet in the Forms section and provide copies to erectile dysfunction in diabetes ayurvedic view buy super levitra 80 mg otc others. Ask the teacher to discuss epilepsy with the class in a way that is age appropriate and comfortable for your child. Having a seizure at school can be embarrassing for a child and frightening for others. Contact your local Epilepsy Foundation for assistance and to see if they can conduct a classroom presentation. For many kids, the most difcult part of having epilepsy is not worrying about seizures, taking medicine or frequent doctor visits. Children with epilepsy often feel as if they have to constantly explain what epilepsy is. Helping the people in your child’s world understand epilepsy will allow them to be more comfortable with it. When talking to children, try to keep your explanation as easy-to-understand and positive as possible. If they say something that seems cruel or insensitive, try not to criticize them, but explain why it is important to think of other’s feelings. Tell them that just like some kids need glasses to see better and others sometimes have trouble breathing because of asthma, Tommy sometimes has seizures. His doctors are helping him fnd the right medicine so he doesn’t have seizures too often. Use the Seizure Action Plan form to make sure that teachers, coaches, babysitters and others who are with your child know what to do if your child has a seizure. Where to Find Support Knowing that any child can get epilepsy does not make it easier to accept that your child has been diagnosed with it. While every family’s situation is diferent and each child’s condition unique, after awhile just about all parents recommend the same thing: build a support network. The school nurse, your local Epilepsy Foundation, government organizations and an online forum are all examples of where you can fnd support, information and other resources. This is sometimes the hardest thing for people to do, but they are usually glad they did. Remember, if you don’t take care of yourself, you won’t be able to take care of your child. You should try to go out once in a while and do something special for yourself, such as go to a movie, exercise class or dinner with friends. Make sure the babysitter is comfortable with your child’s condition before you leave him/her alone. If your child has frequent seizures, have the babysitter spend time with you and your child so he/she can see how you handle the seizures. But understanding the condition and knowing about the many resources to support people with epilepsy will help your child live as happy and fulflling a life as possible. To begin building your support network, look for a mix of online and local resources. To fnd support groups and services available in your area, contact your nearest Epilepsy Foundation afliate ofce listed in the Resources section. Also check with your local hospital and/or Epilepsy Center to see if they hold parent support groups. You’ll fnd online discussion groups, articles about other families with epilepsy and much more. As soon as your child is able to understand, talk to him or her about epilepsy and answer questions openly and honestly. If you need help, talk to your doctor or ask your local Epilepsy Foundation for recommendations. Many children and families beneft from talking to professional therapists and psychologists about their concerns. It’s not only fun, but a chance for your child to build self-confdence and fnd support by meeting other kids with the condition. Infants and Toddlers Seizures occur most frequently during the frst few years of life, during a time when the brain is going through its most dramatic growth and changes. Recognizing and treating seizures as early as possible can help avoid learning and developmental delays. However, diagnosing seizures in infants can be difcult, as they cannot communicate what they are feeling after a seizure or during medical tests. One of the biggest challenges parents of infants or toddlers with epilepsy can face is childcare. Some refuse to give them emergency antiseizure medication, even though they may be required to do so by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Your local Epilepsy Foundation can provide information about laws and resources in your area. Sometimes, parents worry that upsetting a child with epilepsy can lead to a seizure. Usually, if you stay calm and your child is old enough to understand why you are stopping a certain behavior, it shouldn’t increase the risk of a seizure. However, if this is a concern, talk to your doctor about the best way to discipline your child. When a child develops epilepsy, the risks and insecurities that go along with this period are increased. Help your child fnd others to talk to through your local Epilepsy Foundation, the Foundation’s online discussion groups and other resources. Here are some other things to consider: • Puberty – Changing bodies afect how children look, feel and think. The changes in hormones can also afect seizures and medication needs, especially for girls. Talk to your doctor about whether your child might need a change in the amount or type of medication and any behavioral changes that you should be watching for. While you can’t make your child popular, you can help him/her understand that having a few good friends is actually more important than having lots of casual acquaintances. Most women with epilepsy can become pregnant, carry a child successfully through pregnancy, breastfeed and have normal healthy babies. In no case should anti-seizure medications be abruptly stopped if a woman becomes pregnant. Among other recommendations, women and teens with epilepsy should be taking folic acid, and your teen’s physician needs to know if she is taking birth control pills. All these issues should be discussed with the doctor and the teen so that everyone is aware of certain issues and making informed decisions and behavior choices. Studies show that even if it seems as if your child is not paying attention, it may eventually sink in. For help with talking to your child about possible drug or alcohol use, visit. The most common requirement for people with epilepsy is that they be seizure free for a specifc period of time and submit a physician’s evaluation of their ability to drive safely. Another common requirement is the periodic submission of medical reports, in some states for a specifed period of time and in others for as long as the person remains licensed. Discuss this with your child’s neurologist and fnd out what you need to do to comply with your state’s rules regarding driving. As they begin to spend more time away from home, they will need to start taking some responsibilities. Work with your child and doctor to fgure out the best way to organize and monitor this. Transition in health care for young adults is a process that seeks to meet their needs as they move from childhood to adulthood. Parents and the child should create a written health care transition plan in the early teen years to ensure the provision of on-going, developmentally appropriate health care services that continue uninterrupted as the child moves from adolescence to adulthood. However, there are potential factors associated withliving with epilepsy and seizures that may increase the risk of early death. The good news is that there are many resources available to help support you, your child and family. The type of information and support you need may change over time and will depend on your family’s unique situation.

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Ideomotor apraxia can be divided according to erectile dysfunction electric pump 80 mg super levitra for sale the body segment where apprehension span apraxia is observed: face apraxia (ocular n erectile dysfunction treatment las vegas purchase 80 mg super levitra overnight delivery. The maximal number of units that can be and oral apraxia) best erectile dysfunction pills over the counter buy 80mg super levitra visa, limb apraxia (upper limb perceived in a single sensory moment erectile dysfunction mayo generic 80mg super levitra fast delivery. It is apraxia and gait apraxia), and axial apraxia usually measured by having subjects report (body trunk apraxia). Sometimes a further the number of items they can identify after a distinction between motor apraxias (limb single short exposure to an array of items. When there is more than one mutually manipulate objects (constructional apraxia exclusive course of action open to an organism and dressing apraxia), is introduced. Some all of which are associated with positive out authors, however, argue that so-called spatial comes, the organism experiences confict over apraxias should not be considered apraxias, the choice of goals. This confict is strongest but simply interpreted as visuoconstructive/ when the organism is at a point on the differ visuospatial defects. Latin phrase literally meaning “from approach gradient before” used to mean before the fact. The strength of the tendency to move toward describe theories or beliefs about likely out a desired goal, which varies with distance to comes before an actual observation is made. Thus being close to a goal leads to An a priori argument is one based on opinion, 49 aptitude arcuate nucleus theory, or deduction in the absence of actual arachnoid membrane knowledge. The middle of the three membrane layers which surround the brain and spinal cord, aptitude which resembles a spider web. Potential capacity to perform an action, skill, or art which may or may not have been arborization previously utilized. The development of branching connec sured directly but only in terms of previously tions to other neurons in the dendrite of a acquired abilities. Any test of ability which is intended to pre archetypal form dict future acquisition of performance, skill, n. The structural components of the col lective unconscious which are inherited and aptitude treatment interaction have developed through the consistent expe n. An interaction between treatment and apti riences of previous generations and seek tude such that persons with one set or level of expression in individual lives. Examples of abilities react differently to a treatment than archetypes include self, shadow, anima and do persons with different levels or sets of ap animus, mandala, hero, god, sage, great titude. Thus a person with a high aptitude mother, acolyte, the sun and moon, mother, for mathematics might fnd a lecture on six father, son, daughter, and various animals. Neural pathway connecting the poste aqueduct of Sylvius rior part of the temporoparietal junction n. A passageway between the third and fourth (Wernicke’s area) with the posterior frontal ventricles of the brain flled with cerebro cortex (Broca’s area). The liquid which flls the eyeball and the regardless of relatively well preserved audi space between the iris and the cornea in tory comprehension and speech production, the eye. An arch-shaped area in the hypothala land size, but only part of it will be arable mus containing the cell bodies of neurons land. Any of numerous portant factor in infuencing the creation of small groups of neurons on the surface of a human cultures. Cultures in areas where ar pyramidal area of the medulla oblongata able land is scarce will be different than those which are extensions of pontine nuclei associ in areas where arable land is abundant. Hardening of the arteries, usually resulting fourth ventricle with a high density of blood from fatty plaques on the inside of the arte vessels in which the blood-brain barrier is rial walls, that often leads to blockage that more permeable than in most areas of the is called a stroke when it occurs in cerebral brain, allowing toxic substances to enter arteries. Because it also controls the vom iting refex, it allows quicker vomiting after articulation ingestion of toxins than would be possible n. The sum of a set of numbers divided by epiglottis, and the larynx, as well as the teeth, the number of numbers added. The most the alveolar ridge, the hard palate, the velum common meaning of the word average. Sounds occur ring in the world’s natural languages can be Army Alpha and Beta tests described as having a place of articulation n. Two screening devices developed by psy involving one or more of these articulators. Army to classify the For example, sounds produced with both lips large number of recruits who entered the (the consonants in bib) have bilabial place of service for World War I. The Army Alpha test articulation; sounds produced with the tip of was a verbal test of intelligence, and the Army the tongue touching the alveolar ridge (the Beta test was a nonverbal test of intelligence consonants in did) have alveolar place of ar used for illiterate and non-English-speaking ticulation. These tests were the frst intel ent articulatory parameter to classify sounds, ligence tests given to large groups of indi based on the way they are produced. By man viduals (over 1,700,000), as opposed to the ner of articulation, consonants are classifed commonly used individual administrations into oral stops, nasal stops, affricates, frica of intelligence tests. A broad large normative sample fueled a great deal of distinction is also made between obstruent interest in intellectual testing. The design of and sonorant sounds, produced, respec these tests provided some of the foundation tively, with major or minor obstruction to the (along with the Stanford-Binet and Bellevue airfow. Vowels belong to the class of sono intelligence scales) for later intelligence tests rants, along with nasal stops, faps, trills, and including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence approximants, while stops, affricates, and Scale. It is one of the three modules of piration rates, diversion of blood to the a multicomponent model of working memory skeletal muscles and away from the internal proposed to explain how information is tem organs, suppression of immune function, porarily maintained and manipulated. In the and increased alertness with a narrowed model, a central executive system is aided by focus and a faster response time. Arousal the articulatory loop and by a sketchpad, which is sometimes used in a more specifc sense processes visuospatial information. The artic to denote higher levels of activity in a ulatory loop itself has two separable subcom particular brain area such as in occipital ponents: one is a phonological store, subject arousal. Most statistical procedures Recent evidence suggests that the articulatory make the assumption that when an error has loop plays a key role in language acquisition: less than a 20%, 10%, or 1% chance of occur representations of new words are maintained ring, an error has not occurred, when in fact in the loop to optimize learning. The articulatory store, an articulatory rehearsal system, is a subcomponent of the arti cial intelligence articulatory loop (or phonological loop), the n. The articulatory loop philosophy that attempts to simulate human has a phonological store which is subject to intelligence and to consider the nature of a two-second decay, unless the information intelligence. Intelligent programming either is refreshed by rehearsal in the articulatory models behavior as in robotics and expert store. The articulatory store accounts for the systems or attempts to model learning so that word length effect, according to which lists the computer alters its own programming to of longer items are harder to recall than lists work better. The word length arti cial language effect is eliminated with articulatory suppres n. Sign language, prevents rehearsal from taking place in the Esperanto, and computer programming sys articulatory store. A form of psychotherapy in which clients to random error, faulty instrum entation, engage in artistic activities such as paint faulty experimental design, or other human ing, modeling with clay, or basket making error. Any manufactured object, especially as a way of expressing and working with applied to historical or anthropological dis mental conflicts and blocks while avoiding coveries. In some types of manufacturing a usual intellectual and/or verbal defensive prototype upon which others are modeled or ness. A manufactured object of a particular cul ular formation in the brainstem which con ture which is used to infer cultural values and nects with the thalamus and all parts of the technology. Changes in cultural artifacts over cerebral cortex and is especially involved in time are used as clues to make inferences arousal, including wakefulness, attention, about cultural evolution. Unknown to the subject, tial amino acid which can act as an excitory the other persons in the group were all con neurotransmitter. A pervasive developmental disorder in which group of other people or making false reports the child has mild to moderate defcits in social of his or her perceptions. Asch found that perception, language skills, and social behav most participants at least sometimes reported ior. Other symptoms may include diffculty perceptions conforming to the false reports in dealing with environmental change and of the confederates when all the confederates restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behav made the same intentional errors but almost ior or interest patterns. In contrast to those no one made errors if a single confederate who have autism, children with Asperger’s dis gave a correct response. A small minority of order are normal in intelligence and language participants reported perceptions distorted development and often can function normally in a direction opposite to the group’s reports, except for social interactions.

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Then they develop cognitive abilities that allow them to impotence gels generic super levitra 80 mg without prescription be more flexible in their thinking about others impotence surgery cheap 80 mg super levitra otc. Many of our gender stereotypes are so strong because we emphasize gender so much in culture (Bigler & Liben erectile dysfunction due to diabetes generic super levitra 80mg with mastercard, 2007) erectile dysfunction drugs and infertility order super levitra 80 mg with amex. When someone learns of a new pregnancy, the first question asked is “Is it a boy or a girl Developmental intergroup theory postulates that adults’ heavy focus on gender leads children to pay attention to gender as a key source of information about themselves and others, to seek out any possible gender differences, and to form rigid stereotypes based on gender that are subsequently difficult to change. There are also psychological theories that partially explain how children form their own gender roles after they learn to differentiate based on gender. Gender schema theory argues that children are active learners who essentially socialize themselves. In this case, children actively organize others’ behavior, activities, and attributes into gender categories, which are known as schemas. People of all ages are more likely to remember Gender 934 schema-consistent behaviors and attributes than schema-inconsistent behaviors and attributes. So, people are more likely to remember men, and forget women, who are firefighters. If research participants are shown pictures of someone standing at the stove, they are more likely to remember the person to be cooking if depicted as a woman, and the person to be repairing the stove if depicted as a People are more likely to remember schema-consistent behaviors man. By only remembering schema and attributes than schema-inconsistent behaviors and attributes. Social learning theory argues that gender roles are learned through reinforcement, punishment, and modeling. Children are rewarded and reinforced for behaving in concordance with gender roles and punished for breaking gender roles. In addition, social learning theory argues that children learn many of their gender roles by modeling the behavior of adults and older children and, in doing so, develop ideas about what behaviors are appropriate for each gender. Social learning theory has less support than gender schema theory—research shows that parents do reinforce gender-appropriate play, but for the most part treat their male and female children similarly (Lytton & Romney, 1991). Gender Sexism and Socialization Treating boys and girls, and men and women, differently is both a consequence of gender differences and a cause of gender differences. Differential treatment on the basis of gender is also referred to gender discrimination and is an inevitable consequence of gender stereotypes. When it is based on unwanted treatment related to sexual behaviors or appearance, it is called sexual harassment. By the time boys and girls reach the end of high school, most have experienced some form of sexual harassment, most commonly in the form of unwanted touching or comments, being the target of jokes, having their body parts rated, or being called names related to sexual orientation. A meta-analysis of research from the Gender 935 United States and Canada found that parents most frequently treated sons and daughters differently by encouraging gender-stereotypical activities (Lytton & Romney, 1991). Fathers, more than mothers, are particularly likely to encourage gender-stereotypical play, especially in sons. For example, parents talk about numbers and counting twice as often with sons than daughters (Chang, Sandhofer, & Brown, 2011) and talk to sons in more detail about science than with daughters. Parents are also much more likely to discuss emotions with their daughters than their sons. By age 3, children play in gender segregated play groups and expect a high degree of conformity. The concept of ambivalent sexism recognizes the complex nature of gender attitudes, in which women are often associated with positive and negative qualities (Glick & Fiske, 2001). First, hostile sexism refers to the negative attitudes of women as inferior and incompetent relative to men. Second, benevolent sexism refers to the perception that women need to be protected, supported, and adored by men. There has been considerable empirical support for benevolent sexism, possibly because it is seen as more socially acceptable than hostile sexism. Across cultures, males tend to be associated with stronger and more active characteristics than females (Best, 2001). In recent years, gender and related concepts have become a common focus of social change and social debate. Many societies, including American society, have seen a rapid change in perceptions of gender roles, media portrayals of gender, and legal trends relating to gender. For example, there has been an increase in children’s toys attempting to cater to both genders (such as Legos marketed to girls), rather than catering to traditional stereotypes. Nationwide, the drastic surge in acceptance of homosexuality and gender questioning has resulted in a rapid push for legal change to keep up with social change. Change in perceptions of gender is also evident in social issues such as sexual harassment, a term that only entered the mainstream mindset in the 1991 Clarence Thomas/Anita Hill scandal. As society’s gender roles and gender restrictions continue to fluctuate, the legal system and the structure of American society will continue to change and adjust. Gender 936 Figure3: Gender and related topics have become common subjects for social and legal discussion in America in recent years, and this trend is likely to continue. What are the differences and associations among gender, sex, gender identity, and sexual orientation Are the gender differences that exist innate (biological) differences or are they caused by other variables Discuss the theories relating to the development of gender roles and gender stereotypes. Why do you think gender stereotypes are so inflated compared with actual gender differences Why do you think people continue to believe in such strong gender differences despite evidence to the contrary Brainstorm additional forms of gender discrimination aside from sexual harassment. Gender 938 Vocabulary Ambivalent sexism A concept of gender attitudes that encompasses both positive and negative qualities. Benevolent sexism the “positive” element of ambivalent sexism, which recognizes that women are perceived as needing to be protected, supported, and adored by men. Developmental intergroup theory A theory that postulates that adults’ focus on gender leads children to pay attention to gender as a key source of information about themselves and others, to seek out possible gender differences, and to form rigid stereotypes based on gender. Gender the cultural, social, and psychological meanings that are associated with masculinity and femininity. Gender constancy the awareness that gender is constant and does not change simply by changing external attributes; develops between 3 and 6 years of age. Gender roles the behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that are designated as either masculine or feminine in a given culture. Gender schema theory this theory of how children form their own gender roles argues that children actively organize others’ behavior, activities, and attributes into gender categories or schemas. Gender stereotypes the beliefs and expectations people hold about the typical characteristics, preferences, and Gender 939 behaviors of men and women. Hostile sexism the negative element of ambivalent sexism, which includes the attitudes that women are inferior and incompetent relative to men. Schemas the gender categories into which, according to gender schema theory, children actively organize others’ behavior, activities, and attributes. Sex Biological category of male or female as defined by physical differences in genetic composition and in reproductive anatomy and function. Sexual harassment A form of gender discrimination based on unwanted treatment related to sexual behaviors or appearance. Sexual orientation Refers to the direction of emotional and erotic attraction toward members of the opposite sex, the same sex, or both sexes. Social learning theory this theory of how children form their own gender roles argues that gender roles are learned through reinforcement, punishment, and modeling. An ambivalent alliance: Hostile and benevolent sexism as complementary justifications for gender inequality. A meta-analytic review of gender variations in children’s language use: Talkativeness, affiliative speech, and assertive speech. Gender differences in spatial ability of young children: the effects of training and processing strategies.

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