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According to symptoms 8 weeks generic zyprexa 2.5 mg amex this cipher treatment viral conjunctivitis generic zyprexa 10mg line, s would be the second letter in the key symptoms herpes purchase 2.5mg zyprexa amex, as shown in Table 7 medicine lake montana buy zyprexa 7.5mg fast delivery. Key Plaintext Ciphertext Suppose we are given the ciphertext cqeocwp and know that r is the rst letter of the key and the ciphertext has been used as the key. For example, let us encipher the message oh to be in england now that aprils there using the key word voila. In our example, once the cryptanalyst knows that the key has ve letters, frequency analysis may be often employed on successive sets containing every fth letter. In 1925, the American cryptanalyst, William Friedman, developed a method that would determine the length of the key word in any VigeneAre cipher. VigeneAre tableaux were rediscovered by a number of cryptanalysts including the English mathematician and author Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll). Charles Babbage, whose analytic engine was the precursor of our modern computers, constructed a 26-volume code breaking dictionary. He deciphered a message sent by Henrietta Maria, queen to Charles I, personal advertisements found in the Times, and a number of VigeneAre ciphers. Babbage wrote that deciphering is a fascinating art and one which he had wasted more time on than it deserved. He thought, as did many cryptana lysts, that he was capable of constructing a cipher that no one else could break. He was particularly adept at deciphering digraphic ciphers, where letters are paired and encoded together. These ciphers were devised in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone, inventor of the Wheatstone bridge, a circuit used in physics. If the two letters are not on the same row or column then they form opposite vertices of a rectangle and are replaced by the two letters forming the other two vertices of the rectangle with the proviso that letters on the same row replace each other. The letters i and j were considered identical and double letters were separated by an x. His cipher was about six inches long and consisted of 36 wooden disks each about 1 of an inch thick held 6 together with a bolt and nuts on each end, similar to that shown in Figure 7. The outer rim of each disk was divided into 26 equal parts where the letters of the alphabet appeared in random order. To encipher a message, the wheels were rotated until the message to be sent appeared and then one of the remaining 25 jumbled lines sent as the ciphertext. Several years later, when he was President, he chose a VigeneAre cipher as the of?cial method for Meriweather Lewis and William Clark to encipher their messages to him during their expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory in 1802?4. Decipher the ciphertext yvkzr wtzjz xalip pxfqg qhigm alawyq given it was enciphered with a VigeneAre autocipher using the plaintext as key and r is the rst letter of the key. Decipher the ciphertext fpgzt talal gtlyp pwlfa bga given that it was enciphered with VigeneAre autocipher using the ciphertext as key and f is the rst letter of the key. Decipher the ciphertext vlmnr fmpsm itasb hsutv ntmjp given that it was enciphered with a standard VigeneAre cipher with key shazam. Decipher the message ssahxyoo given that it was enciphered using standard VigeneAre cipher with key word me. The problem was to determine how many of each type of object were in the knapsack. Modern knapsack ciphers use superincreasing sequences and binary representations for letters of the alphabet. Use vector multi plication on the decadal binary blocks and the modi?ed superincreasing sequence. Knapsack ciphers can be made even more dif?cult to decipher by multiplying the decadal binary block by a nonzero scalar before the vector multiplication. Multiplying each term by w and reducing modulo 3891, we transform the given superincreasing sequence into the sequence 2002, 3116, 3229, 3794, 2014, 387, 2227, 3889, 448, 3334. The block corresponding to nd under vector multipli cation is transformed into 0. Thus, the resulting ciphertext is given by 9685 12 141 12 926 18 822X To decipher the message, we rst determine, 3650, the inverse of 1001 modulo 3891. Such ciphers act on blocks of letters, and not on individual letters, and, hence, are not as vulnerable to cryptanalysis based on letter frequency. Perform the matrix calculations: 1 6 6 20 4 (mod 26), (mod 26), 4 0 24 18 4 1 18 10 0 10 (mod 26), (mod 26), 4 22 8 18 2 1 21 3 17 13 (mod 26), (mod 26), 4 4 18 24 10 1 1 9 8 20 (mod 26), (mod 26), 4 17 3 6 24 1 7 19 23 17 (mod 26), (mod 26)X 4 19 7 23 16 232 Cryptology 6 24 4 4 10 8 10 2 3 18 13 10 9 3 20 24 19 7 17 16 g y e e k i k c d s n k j d u y t h r q Hence, the resulting ciphertext is gyeek ikcds nkjdu ythrqX To decipher the message, the cryptanalyst must determine the inverse of the enciphering matrix A modulo 26. However, studies on the relative frequencies of typical English text have led to methods for deciphering digraphic Hill ciphers. The most common pair of juxtaposed letters in the English language is th followed closely by he. In addition, 10 words?the, of, and, to, a, in, that, it, is and I-make up a quarter of a typical English text. Decode the message 3564 9400 16 703, given that it was encoded using the superincreasing sequence and n and w from Example 7. Use the digraphic cipher that sends the plaintext blocks P1 and P2 to the cipherblocks C1 and C2, such that C1 3P1? Decipher the ciphertext message rr qb iq it uv qo hw zi, which was enciphered using the digraphic cipher 234 Cryptology Table 7. The two most common digraphs in a ciphertext are zi and ug and these pairs correspond to the two most common pairs in the English text, th and he. To encipher a plaintext using a digraphic exponential cipher we rst transform pairs of the letters of the plaintext into their numerical equivalents in sets of four digits using Table 7. For example, send help would be represented digraphically as 1804 1303 0704 1115X Choose a prime p such that 2525, p, 252 525 and a positive integer e, called the enciphering key, such that gcd(e, p A 1)? Encipher each block P of plaintext into a cipher block C using the exponential congru ence C Pe (mod p), where 0 < C < p. If the enciphering key e and the prime p are known, then the plaintext P is easily recovered. In general, with n-ary exponential ciphers, we group the resulting numerical equivalent of the plaintext into blocks of length 2n,withn chosen so that the largest integer formed by adjoining n decimal equiva lents of plaintext letters is less than p. The letters of the plaintext are converted into their numerical equivalents and then grouped into blocks of length 4 to obtain 2200 0819 2013 1908 1119 0704 1820 1318 0708 1318 1813 0411 1108 0423 where the letter x has been added at the end of the plaintext to ll out the nal block of four digits. Encoding the numerical plaintext using the formula C P23 (mod 2819), we obtain 602 2242 1007 439 2612 280 1303 1981 1511 1981 233 1013 274 540 Since gcd(2818, 23)? The deciphering congruence C2573 P (mod 2819) will return the message to the plaintext. Exponential ciphers discourage cryptanalysis since the cryptanalyst needs to determine the prime and exponent involved in enciphering the message, a formidable task even with a high-speed computer. In a public-key encryption system, we are given a number of individuals who wish to communicate with each other. Each person chooses an enciphering key E, which is published in a book of keys and made available to all users of the system, and a deciphering key D, whose inverse is E and which is kept secret. In order to be a secure system, each deciphering key should be essentially impossible to discover or compute even though the enciphering key is public knowledge. The practicality of such a system eventually depends on the ability of all parties to be able to calculate ef?ciently with the enciphering and deciphering keys. In 1976, a very useful and practical public-key encryption system based on exponential ciphers was devised independently by W. Each individual in the system chooses two very large primes p and q, say of approximately 100 digits each and calculates r? The pair (r, s) forms the enciphering key and is published in the public register of such keys, but t, the deciphering key, is kept secret by the individual. Knowledge of the enciphering key (r, s) does not lead to the deciphering key (t, r). Using the fastest factorization techniques known would require approximately 3X8 3 109 years of computer time to factor o(r). Nevertheless, if r and o(r) are known then p and q can be determined using the identity (p A q)2 A (p? We change the plaintext into its numerical equivalent, and group the numbers into blocks of size 4 to obtain 2104 0408 1805 1417 2108 0219 1417 2423, where we have added a 23, an x, at the end of the message to ll out the nal block of digraphic plaintext.

Students who practiced doing difficult tasks treatment wax buy zyprexa 10 mg on-line, such as exercising medicine wheel teachings order zyprexa 20 mg fast delivery, avoiding swearing symptoms copd buy zyprexa 20mg line, or maintaining good posture treatment varicose veins generic zyprexa 7.5 mg with mastercard, were later found to perform better in laboratory tests of emotion regulation such as maintaining a diet or completing a puzzle (Baumeister, Gailliot, DeWall, & Oaten, 2006; Baumeister, Schmeichel, & Vohs, 2007; Oaten & Cheng, [35] 2006). But the experience of prolonged stress has a direct negative influence on our physical health. Posttraumatic stress in women after the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City. Health psychology: Psychological factors and physical disease from the perspective of human psychoneuroimmunology. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 25(2), 179?187; Miller, G. Health psychology: Developing biologically plausible models linking the social world and physical health. Effects of psychological and social factors on organic disease: A critical assessment of research on coronary heart disease. Neuroticism, daily hassles, and depressive symptoms: An examination of moderating and mediating effects. Autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune responses to psychological stress: the reactivity hypothesis. In Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Neuroimmunomodulation: Molecular aspects, integrative systems, and clinical advances (Vol. Sweating the small stuff: How different types of hassles result in the experience of stress. Stress & Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 24(5), 383?392. Anger, anxiety, and depression as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the problems and implications of overlapping affective dispositions. Hostility: Effects on health and the potential for successful behavioral approaches to prevention and treatment. Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Health complaints, stress, and distress: Exploring the central role of negative affectivity. Effect of written emotional expression on immune function in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A randomized trial. Translating traumatic experiences into language: Implications for child abuse and long-term health. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: Effects of prior task exposure. Regulating the interpersonal self: Strategic self-regulation for coping with rejection sensitivity. Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Self-regulation and personality: How interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior. Understand the important role of positive emotions and happiness in responding to stress. Although stress is an emotional response that can kill us, our emotions can also help us cope with and protect ourselves from it. The stress of the Monday through Friday grind can be offset by the fun that we can have on the weekend, and the concerns that we have about our upcoming chemistry exam can be offset by a positive attitude toward school, life, and other people. Put simply, the best antidote for stress is a happy one: Think positively, have fun, and enjoy the company of others. You have probably heard about the power of positive thinkingthe idea that thinking positively helps people meet their goals and keeps them healthy, happy, and able to effectively cope with the negative events that occur to them. People who think positively about their future, who believe that they can control their outcomes, and who are willing to open up and share with others are healthier people (Seligman, & [1] Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). The power of positive thinking comes in different forms, but they are all helpful. Some researchers have focused on optimism, a general tendency to expect positive outcomes, finding [2] that optimists are happier and have less stress (Carver & Scheier, 2009). Others have focused self-efficacy, the belief in our ability to carry out actions that produce desired outcomes. People with high self-efficacy respond to environmental and other threats in an active, constructive way?by getting information, talking to friends, and attempting to face and reduce the difficulties they are experiencing. These people too are better able to ward off their stresses [3] in comparison to people with less self-efficacy (Thompson, 2009). Self-efficacy helps in part because it leads us to perceive that we can control the potential stressors that may affect us. The ability to control our outcomes may help explain why [6] animals and people who have higher status live longer (Sapolsky, 2005). Hardy individuals are those who are more positive overall about potentially stressful life events, who take more direct action to understand the causes of negative events, and who attempt to learn from them what may be of value for the future. Hardy individuals use effective coping strategies, and they take better care of themselves. Taken together, these various coping skills, including optimism, self-efficacy, and hardiness, have been shown to have a wide variety of positive effects on our health. People with high self-efficacy have been found to be better able to quit smoking and lose weight and are more likely to exercise [9] regularly (Cohen & Pressman, 2006). And hardy individuals seem to cope better with stress [10] and other negative life events (Dolbier, Smith, & Steinhardt, 2007). The positive effects of [11] positive thinking are particularly important when stress is high. Baker (2007) found that in periods of low stress, positive thinking made little difference in responses to stress, but that during stressful periods optimists were less likely to smoke on a day-to-day basis and to respond to stress in more productive ways, such as by exercising. And [13] Maddi, Kahn, and Maddi (1998) found that a hardiness training? program that included focusing on ways to effectively cope with stress was effective in increasing satisfaction and decreasing self-reported stress. Christopher Peterson and [14] his colleagues (Peterson, Seligman, Yurko, Martin, & Friedman, 1998) found that the level of optimism reported by people who had first been interviewed when they were in college during the years between 1936 and 1940 predicted their health over the next 50 years. Students who had a more positive outlook on life in college were less likely to have died up to 50 years later of all causes, and they were particularly likely to have experienced fewer accidental and violent deaths, in comparison to students who were less optimistic. After controlling for loneliness, marital status, economic status, and other correlates of health, Levy and Myers found that older adults with positive attitudes and higher self-efficacy had better health and lived on average almost 8 years longer than their more negative peers (Levy & Myers, [15] 2005; Levy, Slade, & Kasl, 2002). And Diener, Nickerson, Lucas, and Sandvik [16] (2002) found that people who had cheerier dispositions earlier in life had higher income levels and less unemployment when they were assessed 19 years later. Finding Happiness Through Our Connections With Others Happiness is determined in part by genetic factors, such that some people are naturally happier [17] than others (Braungart, Plomin, DeFries, & Fulker, 1992; Lykken, 2000), but also in part by the situations that we create for ourselves. Psychologists have studied hundreds of variables that influence happiness, but there is one that is by far the most important. People who report that they have positive social relationships with others?the perception ofsocial support?also report being happier than those who report having less social support (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, [18] 1999; Diener, Tamir, & Scollon, 2006). Married people report being happier than unmarried [19] people (Pew, 2006), and people who are connected with and accepted by others suffer less depression, higher self-esteem, and less social anxiety and jealousy than those who feel more [20] isolated and rejected (Leary, 1990). Koopman, Hermanson, Diamond, Angell, [21] and Spiegel (1998) found that women who reported higher social support experienced less [22] depression when adjusting to a diagnosis of cancer, and Ashton et al. For one, having people we can trust and rely on helps us directly by allowing us to share favors when we need them. Gencoz and Ozlale (2004) found that students with more friends felt less stress and reported that their friends helped them, but they also reported that having friends made them feel better about themselves. Again, you can see that the tend-and-befriend response, so often used by women, is an important and effective way to reduce stress. One difficulty that people face when trying to improve their happiness is that they may not always know what will make them happy. As one example, many of us think that if we just had more money we would be happier. While it is true that we do need money to afford food and adequate shelter for ourselves and our families, after this minimum level of wealth is reached, [25] more money does not generally buy more happiness (Easterlin, 2005). For instance, as you can see in, even though income and material success has improved dramatically in many countries over the past decades, happiness has not. Despite tremendous economic growth in France, Japan, and the United States between 1946 to 1990, there was no increase in reports of well-being by the citizens of these countries. Americans today have about three times the buying power they had in the 1950s, and yet overall happiness has not increased. The problem seems to be that we never seem to have enough money to make us really? happy.

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Having others like and believe in the same things we do makes us feel validated in our beliefs treatment kidney failure zyprexa 20 mg sale. This is referred to medicine 369 zyprexa 2.5mg with visa as consensual validation medicine chest buy zyprexa 7.5 mg low price, and it is an important aspect of why we are attracted to symptoms 8 days after ovulation discount zyprexa 10mg otc others. Source: Self-Disclosure: Liking is also enhanced by self-disclosure, the tendency to communicate frequently, without fear of reprisal, and in an accepting and empathetic manner. Friends are our friends because we can talk to them openly about our needs and goals and because they listen to and respond to our needs (Reis & Aron, 2008). If we open up to our friends about the concerns that are important to us, we expect them to do the same in return. Research has found that we are more likely to develop friendships with people who are nearby, for instance, those who live in the same dorm that we do, and even with people who just happen to sit nearer to us in our classes (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2008). The effect of mere exposure is powerful and occurs in a wide variety of situations. Infants tend to smile at a photograph of someone they have seen before more than they smile at a photograph of someone they are seeing for the first time (Brooks-Gunn & Lewis, 1981), and people prefer side-to-side reversed images of their own faces over their normal (nonreversed) face, whereas their friends prefer their normal face over the reversed one (Mita, Dermer, & Knight, 1977). This is expected on the basis of mere exposure, since people see their own faces primarily in mirrors, and thus are exposed to the reversed face more often. We have an initial fear of the unknown, but as things become more familiar they seem more similar and safe, and thus produce more positive affect and seem less threatening and dangerous (Harmon-Jones & Allen, 2001; Freitas, Azizian, Travers, & Berry, 2005). Zebrowitz and colleagues found that we like people of our own race in part because they are perceived as similar to us (Zebrowitz, Bornstad, & Lee, 2007) Helping Others: Altruism Altruism refers to any behavior that is designed to Figure 9. Altruism occurs when we stop to help a stranger who has been stranded on the highway, when we volunteer at a homeless shelter, or when we donate to a charity. Twenty-five percent of Americans (63 million) contributed almost $193 billion in value by volunteering in 2016. In addition, in that same year Americans donated $360 billion to charities, an increase of 2. We help in part to make ourselves feel good, but also because we care about the welfare of others. Time We are more likely to help when we have plenty of time than when we are in a hurry (Darley & Batson 1973). Similarity We help people whom we see as similar to us, for instance, those who mimic our behaviors (van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004). Guilt If we are experiencing guilt, we may help in order to relieve those negative feelings (Malti et al. Empathy We help more when we feel empathy for the other person (Batson, O?Quin, Fultz, Varnderplas, & Isen, 1983). Benefits We are more likely to help if we can feel good about ourselves by doing so (Snyder, Omoto, & Lindsay, 2004). When we act altruistically, we gain a reputation as a person with high status who is able and willing to help others, and this status makes us more desirable in the eyes of others (Hardy & Van Vugt, 2006). Personal We are more likely to help if it is clear that others are not helping (Rogers, Miller, Responsibility Mayer, & Duval,1982). Self-presentation We may help in order to show others that we are good people (Hardy & Van Vugt, 2006). The tendency to help others in need is, in part, a functional evolutionary adaptation. Burnstein, Crandall, and Kitayama (1994) found that students indicated they would be more likely to help a person who was closely related to them. People are more likely to donate kidneys to relatives than to strangers (Borgida, Conner, & Manteufel, 1992), and even children indicate that they are more likely to help their siblings than they are to help a friend (Tisak & Tisak, 1996). Although it makes evolutionary sense that we would help people who we are related to, why would we help people to whom we not related? One explanation for such behavior is based on the principle of reciprocal altruism (Krebs & Davies, 1987; Trivers, 1971). Reciprocal altruism is the principle that, if we help other people now, those others will return the favor should we need their help in the future. By helping others, we both increase our chances of survival and reproductive success and help others increase their survival too. However, just as viewing altruism can increase helping, modeling of behavior that is not altruistic can decrease altruism. For instance, Anderson and Bushman (2001) found that playing violent video games led to a decrease in helping. We are also more likely to help when we receive rewards for doing so and less likely to help when helping is costly. We might hope that our children internalize another relevant social norm that seems more altruistic: the social responsibility norm which tells us that we should try to help others who need assistance, even without any expectation of future paybacks. The teachings of many cultures are based on the social responsibility norm; that we should, as good human beings, reach out and help other people whenever we can. How the Presence of Others Can Reduce Helping One reason that might limit our decision to help is the presence of others. The bystander effect refers to the reduced likelihood of people offering assistance as the number of bystanders increases. One of the most widely touted examples of the bystander effect is the case of Kitty Genovese. Late at night on March 13, 1964, 28-year-old Kitty Genovese was murdered within a few yards of her apartment building in New York City after a violent fight with her killer in which she struggled and screamed. When police interviewed her neighbors about the crime, they reported that while 38 of her neighbors heard the sounds of a fight, none had intervened, and only one had called the police. The model has been extensively tested in many studies, and there is substantial support for it. Are they just goofing around in the water or are they really in need of assistance? At the same time, they may be looking to us to help them understand the situation. This tendency of the individuals to incorrectly assume that others in the group believe something, when this is not the case is called pluralistic ignorance, and is considered one of the explanations for the bystander effect (Kitts, 2003). The inaction of others at the scene may lead you to redefine the situation as not being an emergency. The presence of others diffuses any personal responsibility you may feel to step in and take action. Even if we have noticed the emergency and have interpreted it as such, we still need to decide if it is our responsibility to do something. When others are present, it is easier for us to assume that others will help, and we do not need to do anything. Diffusion of responsibility occurs when we assume that others will take on the responsibility and that we do not need to take action ourselves. Of course, for many of us, the best way to help someone in an emergency is not always clear; we are not professionals and we have little training in how to help in an emergency. People who do have such training are more likely to help, whereas the rest of us just do not know what to do, and may simply walk on by. On the other hand, today many people have cell phones, and can do a lot with a quick call. In the opening lines Gansberg states, For more than half-an-hour 38 respectable, law? Twice their chatter and the sudden glow of their bedroom lights interrupted him and frightened him off. Not one person telephoned the police during the assault; one witness called after the woman was dead. Growing up hearing the stories, he felt there was more to it than had been reported. His investigation uncovered several mistakes in the original article about the events of that night. Rosenthal later went on to write a best-selling book, Thirty-Eight Witnesses: the Kitty Genovese Case?, which Genovese claims further reinforced the idea that no one helped. Given the location of the apartments, it was late at night, and the advanced age of most of the witnesses, no one actually watched, as the New York Times article stated.

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A liver biopsy will differentiate between steatosis that may temporarily exclude the donor and steatohepatitis that will permanently exclude the donor medicine 666 colds buy zyprexa 20 mg. In adults symptoms 7 weeks pregnant buy zyprexa 10mg low price, the choice of donor graft aims to symptoms 4 weeks 3 days pregnant zyprexa 10mg amex reduce risks to keratin intensive treatment buy zyprexa 2.5mg low cost the donor by achieving as large a remnant volume as possible and, hence, a small resection; a left graft should usually be considered first. It can lead to graft failure ranging from primary non-function to severe graft dysfunction (primary poor function or delayed graft function). Low graft volume was identified to be a primary independent variable but recipient factors such as condition and metabolic demand also play a role. The syndrome has been further characterised and objective criteria have been proposed (6). In contrast, additional venous reconstruction of the anterior segment with an interposition vein graft has been adopted by Lee et al (9). This can either be performed as routine, or based on visual evidence of congestion after reperfusion, or on volume estimates of the congested area on pre operative imaging (10). Formulae are used for calculating the standard liver volume of the recipient, of which sixteen have been published. As the experience of the centre increases, non-conventional anatomy may be accepted. Double pedicles with or without aberrant arterial supply will be considered on a case-by-case basis (more frequent in left lateral segment donation). Anatomical variations, including three or more arterial pedicles normally exclude donation. The portal venous anatomy: preferably, normal to the proposed liver lobe but a trifurcation may be considered. The hepatic venous drainage: ideally, conventional from the proposed donor liver lobe but reconstruction of venous drainage is a useful procedure to avoid congestion in the graft (see below). Two separate ducts in right lobes are not a contraindication to living donation and transplantation. The strategy and technique of reconstruction is guided by the size of the arteries, presence of arterial backflow and, more precisely, by the measurement of high arterial stump pressure in the smaller calibre artery. Whenever possible, it is advisable to reconstruct both arteries to avoid, in particular, biliary complications (16). In extreme case of right hemiliver dominance, it may be necessary to tailor preservation of segment 8 (S8) (17). The hepatic arteries: the presence of two arteries is acceptable in experienced centres which are prepared to do microsurgical arterial anastomosis. Very often the presence of a good backflow allows for only a single arterial anastomosis (18). There is also evidence showing worse liver biochemistry post hepatectomy in the fatty livers? (20,21) but as the selection process has been rigorous it is not possible to recommend a cut off for donation. The percent of fatty change acceptable for donation varies between centres, ranging from 10% to 60%. From the recipient point of view, higher levels of fat could be used despite a smaller graft size because of the shortened cold ischaemic time, but the risk to the donor is unacceptable. For example, a 30% remnant would be unacceptable if there was more than 10% fat (4). Left Lateral Lobe: steatosis is less of a problem with left lateral lobe donation for both donor and recipient. In patients initially rejected as donors due to steatosis, a low calorie defatting diet? and reassessment can be considered (22). This discussion must include the donor advocate team and members of the recipient team. As these risks are not insignificant for the potential donor, valid and informed donor consent is paramount. For established programmes (>20/year), centre-specific activity and morbidity and mortality data must be provided during the donor consent process. A two-stage consent process is best practice and ensures appropriate and fully informed consent is given (24). The donor may choose to withdraw consent at any time prior to donation, in which case the reasons must remain confidential. Their depth from the capsule is noted and their level is marked with diathermy on the capsule. These are carefully dissected and clipped on the right side of the cut surface with a white plastic clip. The direction of the dissection is cranial and after completing the dome, packs are removed from the hepatic fossa to allow the liver to open like a book? Once the parenchymal dissection is extended caudally, guided by the hanging manoeuvre, the right Glissonian sheet is met surrounding the right hepatic duct? The hanging tape/tube is rerouted beneath the right-sided vascular and biliary structures to hang the caudate lobe cranially to the above named structures and its transection is completed? Two sutures are placed after probing the right duct via the cystic duct, and two radiopaque markers are placed to define the proposed line of section of the duct(s)? The operation can be paused for a few minutes prior to hepatectomy in the recipient. Understanding the caudate lobe biliary drainage will very often pin point the leak to one of the two areas: o the divided end of the segment 4 duct o the divided ducts of the Caudate lobe that were draining into the left duct? Closure of these will result in a much lower incidence of bile leaks in left lateral segment donors. Morbidity from the open incision can be reduced by using an upper midline incision wherever possible. As a precaution, the bile duct division is done only after completion of the transection just prior to explantation, so the graft can be retained as "hepar divisum" with intact inflow and reducing the morbidity associated with bile duct reconstruction. If this is insufficient, then oral Tramadol 100mg three times a day and rectal or oral Paracetamol. Diagnosis of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis by transient elastography in asymptomatic healthy individuals: a prospective study of living related potential liver donors. Small-for-size syndrome after partial liver transplantation: definition, mechanisms of disease and clinical implications. Technical refinement in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using right lobe graft. Right living donor liver transplantation: an option for adult patients: single institution experience with 74 patients. Graft selection algorithm based on congestion volume for adult living donor liver transplantation. Donor/recipient algorithm for management of the middle hepatic vein in right graft live donor liver transplantation. Preoperative volume prediction in adult living donor liver transplantation: how much can we rely on it? Right hepatectomy for living donation: role of remnant liver volume in predicting hepatic dysfunction and complications. Accurate estimation of living donor right hemi-liver volume from portal vein diameter measurement and standard liver volume calculation. Variability of standard liver volume estimation versus software-assisted total liver volume measurement. Dual hepatic artery reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation using a left hepatic graft with 2 hepatic arterial stumps. Variations in biliary anatomy associated with trifurcated portal vein in right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation. Mild hepatic macrovesicular steatosis may be a risk factor for hyperbilirubinaemia in living liver donors following right hepatectomy. Impact of hepatic macrovesicular and microvesicular steatosis on the postoperative liver functions after right hepatectomy in living donors. Safety and feasibility of diet-treated donors with steatotic livers at the initial consultation for living-donor liver transplantation. Recipient death during a live donor liver transplantation: who gets the "orphan" graft? It is recognised that factors such as the quality of graft and recipient conditions can influence recipient results.


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