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One of their main points is the explanation of the ways in which advertising perpetuates the norms of a patriarchal society heart attack jaw pain right side order 17.5mg lisinopril visa. They discuss the fact that images of women in advertising are consistent with the media theory of a male dominated? gaze (Shields 71) heart attack vegas cheap 17.5mg lisinopril with mastercard. Therefore heart attack 8 days collections lisinopril 17.5 mg visa, she continues heart attack 720p movie download generic 17.5 mg lisinopril with mastercard, advertisements and other images of women are shot in such ways that encourage female audiences to adopt a certain perspective when looking at other women and themselves (Shields 77). Shields and Heinecken argue that women in society have been conditioned to see the female body? in the same way the men see it and constantly feel as though they are being looked at (Shields 74). Now, the male gaze influences, both directly and indirectly, the complex relationships between women and their bodies through a number of mediums. One study about adolescent body satisfaction and dissatisfaction asserts: Although the media and social culture may encourage a certain body preference for females that virtually all adolescent girls are exposed to on some level, it is the more immediate culture of family and friends that either support the thin ideal body preference [or] encourage body dissatisfaction? (Kelly 395). This leads me to conclude that online social networking, which is essentially the combination of immediate family and friends and the media can only magnify the problems of body dissatisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to explore exactly that the relationship between social media. Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, and Pinterest) and the body satisfaction or dissatisfaction among its college-aged female users. Kramer revealed that people who look at attractive users [on Facebook] have less positive emotions afterwards and are also more dissatisfied with their own body image than people who look at unattractive users? (Haferkamp 313). Another 2011 study performed at the University of Haifa in 2011 by Professors Yael Latzer, Ruth Katz and Zohar Spivak of the Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences had similar results. It looked at the correlation between the amount of time adolescent girls spent looking at Facebook and negative body image and (dis)satisfaction. In this particular study, researchers looked at females from the age of 12 to 19, and asked them to self-report their social media use and approaches to dieting, as well as a general sense of how they feel about their bodies. In the end, it was established that: the more time girls spend on Facebook, the more they suffered conditions of bulimia, anorexia, physical dissatisfaction, negative physical self-image, negative approach to eating and more of an urge to be on a weight-loss diet. It is important to note that Latzer, Katz, and Zohar did not assert that there was causation between Facebook use and body dissatisfaction. Nonetheless, the high correlation between the two suggests that girls who spend a lot of time on social media may be using it as a way to feed their negative body image or just to find dieting and weight loss tips. Although this study focused on a slightly younger demographic of females, the results are telling of the dangerous side effects of high social media use. That someone else? used to Klein 26 only be depicted in the constant advertisements that appear throughout society, but can now interfere into everyday life through several platforms and devices. Many studies reveal that the media communicates very complex messages about cultural standards of beauty, femininity, and masculinity,? but its role has become increasingly critical, as we, as a society, have now been given the power to create our own content (Rumsey231). According to various social observers, imitation has been long recognized [and] important in human society? (Bikhchandani 152). Further, the propensity to imitate is presumably an evolutionary adaptation that has promoted survival over thousands of generations? (Bikhchandani 152). As a deeply rooted social construct, then, imitation can potentially be utilized in adverse ways. This corruption, then, can cause the internalization of the male gaze, the self-surveying gaze,? to become overwhelming, and in turn, Klein 27 distorted? (Shields 102). In recognizing the statistical increase of both eating disorders and disordered thoughts regarding weight, food, and appearance, I can more clearly see the strong correlation between changing media technology and affected self-esteem and body image. Social media has the potential to foster an internalization of the male gaze as described in the analysis of advertisements, as well as the desire to imitate our peers, as st described in sociological and psychological theories. For females in the 21 century, the strong emphasis placed on social networking and photo sharing can only build on the already existent phenomenon of social psychology, sociology, and media effects theories that help explain body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. So, before discussing the influence of new and social media on female body image, we must trace and analyze the various depictions of beauty that have circulated throughout advertising and media history; as well as how those changing images have affected women in society. As established in the previous chapter, the prevalence of negative body image continues to rise. Additionally, the speculation that media consumption affects the way in which people feel about themselves is not a new concept. It will be helpful to analyze the way in which traditional media have portrayed women throughout the past century in order to understand how women today have learned to portray themselves both in real life and on their social media profiles essentially, their own forms of personal advertising. Then, it will be easier to argue that social media, in fact, builds upon an already existing phenomena of media influence that, prior to the Internet, was largely only attributed to the advertising industry. Once this paper establishes a correlation between body image changes and fluctuations of the size of the average woman as she appears in advertising, I will have a stronger foundation on which to base my argument that social media, like advertising, can have adverse effects on Klein 29 female body image. This chapter will contain a critical analysis and close reading of specific advertisements throughout history and discuss how our notions of body image and self-worth have evolved accordingly. For the purpose of this paper, I will focus only the evolution of the ideal woman as she appears in advertising. Through perfectly posed graphics, advertisers attempt to set up a virtual reality and dictate what is considered normal for society as a whole. Author, Jim Fowles, refers to the changing fashion trends as the cycle of attractiveness,? and argues that it is defined in popular culture and then refined in advertising? (140). And through the analysis of the evolution of the female role in this cycle of attraction,? we can see changes in style, fashion, and most important, the values of society (Reichert 83). Using a variety of idealized graphics, advertising tells us who we are and who we want to be [?] it corrupts our language and thus influences our ability to think clearly? (Kilbourne 74). One way that advertisers do this is to utilize and sexualize women as a way to sell a product. This environment cultivates a body-hatred that so many young women feel,? which ultimately leads to disordered thoughts and body dissatisfaction as well as simply being obsessed with controlling ones appetite? (Kilbourne 135). Since the early 1900s, young women have been surrounded by photo-heavy media that has helped shape their perspectives of themselves and those around them. And Klein 30 although the ideal beauty has been expressed through a variety of body types, the thin and fit ideal has consistently been a key signifier of femininity,? encouraging women to embody a certain, usually unrealistic figure (Rumsey 175). This thin ideal has continued to decrease in shape and weight since the 1950s, and today, is even more slender, sometimes to a dangerous point of emaciation. In fact, between the 50s and the 80s, the proportion of heavy models dropped from 12% to 3% [?] whereas the use of very thin models rose from 3% to 46%? (Fowles 141). Although the trendy styles and desired appearances as dictated by the media change regularly, each tiny deviation from the previous look [has been] greeted with utter delirium? (Mulvey 9). In other words, most new trends that have been introduced in the media have been eagerly mirrored in society. Thirty years later, in the 1950s, a full chested hourglass? woman was preferred again; while, twenty years after that, she was reduced to the skinny waif? of the 1970s (Shields xii). In looking through the past century, advertisements have always reinforced the idea that women should fit a certain standard. Klein 31 In 1916, Pond created an advertising campaign for Vanishing Cream that definitely contributed to the standard for women at the time. Although the ads features cartoon drawings rather than real models or actresses, it still implies that women must look like the female cartoon in order to be courted and desired by men. If the placement of the figures isn?t enough, Pond even adds text to the ad that reads, What a man looks for in a girl? (Reichert 82). The marketers left nothing up for interpretation men wan women to look a certain way and this product will help achieve them that look. Her body does not appear to be excessively slender, but her dress does accentuate the area just below her chest, which was a desired physical trait of the era called the empire line? (Mulvey 52). An empire line is the narrow waist right below the bust of a woman that is Klein 32 meant to accentuate her breasts, a typically objectified body part for women. In fact, during the time the ad was featured, short hair was seen as chic? and as a result of ads like this one, the style was mimicked by hundreds of in the first week of it being reported? in the media (Mulvey 54). The speed at which styles changed as a result of media and advertising was impeccable even in the early 1900s. Even in the early 1900s advertising had an almost immediate effect on the style preferences with regards to clothing, hairstyle, and physical appearance. Imagine now, with the advent of the Internet and smartphones, the potential speed at which styles and preferences can change. They wanted what the advertisements showed them fame, beauty, and attention from men and they were conditioned to think that in order to achieve that, they would need to mimic what they saw. For that reason, advertisements have always held a certain power over women, as they tend to dictate what is socially acceptable as a female ideal. Twenty years later, in the 1930s, advertisements continued to reinforce the myth of the ideal feminine beauty.

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Most individuals resume normal sleep patterns after the initial triggering event has disappeared arrhythmia word breakdown 17.5mg lisinopril with visa, but others?perhaps those more vulnerable to heart attack in sleep discount lisinopril 17.5 mg insomnia?continue experiencing persistent sleep difficulties blood pressure cuff name buy lisinopril 17.5mg on line. Perpetuating factors such as poor sleep habits blood pressure low diastolic order lisinopril 17.5mg on-line, irregular sleep scheduling, and the fear of not sleeping feed into the in? somnia problem and may contribute to a vicious cycle that may induce persistent insomnia. Anxiety or worry-prone personality or cognitive styles, increased arousal predisposition, and tendency to repress emotions can increase vulnerability to insomnia. Noise, light, uncomfortably high or low temperature, and high altitude may also increase vulnerability to insomnia. Female gender and advancing age are associated with in? creased vulnerability to insomnia. The prevalence of insomnia is higher among monozygotic twins relative to dizygotic twins; it is also higher in first-degree family members compared with the general population. The extent to which this link is inherited through a genetic predisposition, learned by observations of parental models, or established as a by-product of another psy? chopathology remains undetermined. G ender-Reiated Diagnostic issues Insomnia is a more prevalent complaint among females than among males, with first onset often associated with the birth of a new child or with menopause. Despite higher preva? lence among older females, polysomnographic studies suggest better preservation of sleep continuity and slow-wave sleep in older females than in older males. Diagnostic iVlaricers Polysomnography usually shows impairments of sleep continuity. Quantitative electroencephalographic analyses may indicate that individuals with insom? nia have greater high-frequency electroencephalography power relative to good sleepers both around the sleep onset period and during non-rapid eye movement sleep, a feature suggestive of increased cortical arousal. Individuals with insomnia disorder may have a lower sleep propensity and typically do not show increased daytime sleepiness on objec? tive sleep laboratory measures compared with individuals without sleep disorders. Other laboratory measures show evidence, although not consistently, of increased arousal and a generalized activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In general, findings are consistent with the hypothesis that increased physiological and cognitive arousal plays a significant role in insomnia disorder. Individuals with insomnia disorder may appear either fatigued or haggard or, con? versely, overaroused and "wired. There may be an increased incidence of stress related psychophysiological symptoms. Functional Consequences of Insomnia Disorder Interpersonal, social, and occupational problems may develop as a result of insomnia or excessive concern with sleep, increased daytime irritability, and poor concentration. De? creased attention and concentration are common and may be related to higher rates of ac? cidents observed in insomnia. Persistent insomnia is also associated with long-term consequences, including increased risks of major depressive disorder, hypertension, and myocardial infarction; increased absenteeism and reduced productivity at work; reduced quality of life; and increased economic burden. Some individuals who require little sleep ("short sleepers") may be concerned about their sleep duration. Short sleepers differ from individuals with insomnia disorder by the lack of difficulty falling or staying asleep and by the absence of characteristic daytime symptoms. However, some short sleepers may desire or attempt to sleep for a longer period of time and, by prolonging time in bed, may create an insomnia-like sleep pattern. Clinical insomnia also should be distinguished from normal, age-related sleep changes. Insomnia must also be distinguished from sleep deprivation due to inadequate opportunity or circumstance for sleep resulting, for example, from an emer? gency or from professional or family obligations forcing the individual to stay awake. Situational/acute insomnia is a condition lasting a few days to a few weeks, often associated with life events or with changes in sleep schedules. These acute or short-term insomnia symptoms may also produce significant distress and inter? fere with social, personal, and occupational functioning. When such symptoms are fre? quent enough and meet all other criteria except for the 3-month duration, a diagnosis of other specified insomnia disorder or unspecified insomnia disorder is made. Individuals with the delayed sleep phase type of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder re? port sleep-onset insomnia only when they try to sleep at socially normal times, but they do not report difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep when their bed and rising times are delayed and coincide with their endogenous circadian rhythm. Shift work type differs from insomnia disorder by the history of recent shift work. Restless legs syndrome often produces difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep. However, an urge to move the legs and any accompanying unpleas? ant leg sensations are features that differentiate this disorder from insomnia disorder. Most individuals with a breathing-related sleep dis? order have a history of loud snoring, breathing pauses during sleep, and excessive daytime sleepiness. Nonetheless, as many as 50% of individuals with sleep apnea may also report insomnia symptoms, a feature that is more common among females and older adults. Narcolepsy may cause insomnia complaints but is distinguished from in? somnia disorder by the predominance of symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness, cat? aplexy, sleep paralysis, and sleep-related hallucinations. Parasomnias are characterized by a complaint of unusual behavior or events during sleep that may lead to intermittent awakenings and difficulty resuming sleep. However, it is these behavioral events, rather than the insomnia per se, that dominate the clinical picture. Substance/medication induced sleep disorder, insomnia type, is distinguished from insomnia disorder by the fact that a substance. For example, insomnia occurring only in the context of heavy coffee consumption would be diagnosed as caffeine-induced sleep disorder, insomnia type, with onset during intoxication. Comorbidity Insomnia is a common comorbidity of many medical conditions, including diabetes, cor? onary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, fibromyalgia, and other chronic pain conditions. The risk relationship appears to be bidirectional: insomnia increases the risk of medical conditions, and medical problems increase the risk of insom? nia. The direction of the relationship is not always clear and may change over time; for this reason, comorbid insomnia is the preferred terminology in the presence of coexisting in? somnia with another medical condition (or mental disorder). Individuals with insomnia disorder frequently have a comorbid mental disorder, par? ticularly bipolar, depressive, and anxiety disorders. Persistent insomnia represents a risk factor or an early symptom of subsequent bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Individuals with insomnia may misuse medications or alcohol to help with nighttime sleep, anxiolytics to combat tension or anxiety, and caffeine or other stimulants to combat excessive fatigue. In addition to worsening the insomnia, this type of substance use may in some cases progress to a substance use disorder. These include psychophysiological insomnia, idiopathic insomnia, sleep-state mispercep? tion, and inadequate sleep hygiene. Despite their clinical appeal and heuristic value, there is limited evidence to support these distinct phenotypes. Self-reported excessive sleepiness (hypersomnolence) despite a main sleep period lasting at least 7 hours, with at least one of the following symptoms: 1. A prolonged main sleep episode of more than 9 hours per day that is nonrestorative. The hypersomnolence is accompanied by significant distress or impairment in cogni? tive, social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The hypersomnolence is not better explained by and does not occur exclusively during the course of another sleep disorder. The hypersomnolence is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance. Coexisting mental and medical disorders do not adequately explain the predominant complaint of t^ypersomnolence. Specify if: With mental disorder, including substance use disorders With medicai condition With another sleep disorder Coding note: the code 780. Code also the relevant associated mental disorder, medical condition, or other sleep disorder im? mediately after the code for hypersomnolence disorder in order to indicate the associ? ation. Specify current severity: Specify severity based on degree of difficulty maintaining daytime alertness as manifested by the occurrence of multiple attacks of irresistible sleepiness within any given day occur? ring, for example, while sedentary, driving, visiting with friends, or working. Diagnostic Features Hypersomnolence is a broad diagnostic term and includes symptoms of excessive quantity of sleep. Individuals with this disorder fall asleep quickly and have a good sleep efficiency (>90%). They may have difficulty waking up in the morning, sometimes appearing confused, combative, or ataxic.

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However heart attack japanese generic 17.5mg lisinopril overnight delivery, if an individual has personality features that meet criteria for one or more personality disorders in addition to arrhythmia of the heart 17.5mg lisinopril narcissistic person? ality disorder blood pressure printable chart buy lisinopril 17.5mg amex, all can be diagnosed arteria thoracica interna cheap 17.5mg lisinopril visa. The most useful feature in discriminating narcissistic personality disorder from histrionic, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders, in which the interactive styles are coquettish, callous, and needy, respectively, is the grandi? osity characteristic of narcissistic personality disorder. The relative stability of self-image as well as the relative lack of self-destructiveness, impulsivity, and abandonment concerns also help distinguish narcissistic personality disorder from borderline personality disor? der. Although individuals with borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders may require much attention, those with narcissistic personality dis? order specifically need that attention to be admiring. Individuals with antisocial and nar? cissistic personality disorders share a tendency to be tough-minded, glib, superficial, exploitative, and unempathic. However, narcissistic personality disorder does not neces? sarily include characteristics of impulsivity, aggression, and deceit. In addition, individu? als with antisocial personality disorder may not be as needy of the admiration and envy of others, and persons with narcissistic personality disorder usually lack the history of con? duct disorder in childhood or criminal behavior in adulthood. In both narcissistic person? ality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, the individual may profess a commitment to perfectionism and believe that others cannot do things as well. In con? trast to the accompanying self-criticism of those with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, individuals with narcissistic personality disorder are more likely to believe that they have achieved perfection. Suspiciousness and social withdrawal usually distinguish those with schizotypal or paranoid personality disorder from those with narcissistic per? sonality disorder. When these qualities are present in individuals with narcissistic person? ality disorder, they derive primarily from fears of having imperfections or flaws revealed. Many highly successful individuals display personality traits that might be considered narcissistic. Only when these traits are inflexible, maladaptive, and persisting and cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress do they constitute narcissistic per? sonality disorder. Grandiosity may emerge as part of manic or hypomanie episodes, but the association with mood change or functional impairments helps distinguish these episodes from narcissistic personality disorder. Narcissistic personality disorder must also be distinguished from symptoms that may develop in association with persistent substance use. Cluster C Personality Disorders Avoidant Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria 301. Avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection. Shows restraint within intimate relationships because of the fear of being shamed or ridiculed. Is unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because they may prove embarrassing. Diagnostic Features the essential feature of avoidant personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of social inhi? bition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation that begins by early adulthood and is present in a variety of contexts. Individuals with avoidant personality disorder avoid work activities that involve sig? nificant interpersonal contact because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection (Cri? terion 1). Offers of job promotions may be declined because the new responsibilities might result in criticism from co-workers. These individuals avoid making new friends unless they are certain they will be liked and accepted without criticism (Criterion 2). Until they pass stringent tests proving the contrary, other people are assumed to be critical and dis? approving. Individuals with this disorder will not join in group activities unless there are repeated and generous offers of support and nurturance. Interpersonal intimacy is often difficult for these individuals, although they are able to establish intimate relationships when there is assurance of uncritical acceptance. They may act with restraint, have diffi? culty talking about themselves, and withhold intimate feelings for fear of being exposed, ridiculed, or shamed (Criterion 3). Because individuals with this disorder are preoccupied with being criticized or re? jected in social situations, they may have a markedly low threshold for detecting such re? actions (Criterion 4). If someone is even slightly disapproving or critical, they may feel extremely hurt. They tend to be shy, quiet, inhibited, and "invisible" because of the fear that any attention would be degrading or rejecting. They expect that no matter what they say, others will see it as "wrong," and so they may say nothing at all. Despite their longing to be active participants in social life, they fear placing their welfare in the hands of others. Individuals with avoidant personality disorder are inhibited in new interpersonal situations because they feel inadequate and have low self-esteem (Criterion 5). Doubts concerning social competence and personal appeal become especially manifest in settings involving inter? actions with strangers. These individuals believe themselves to be socially inept, person? ally unappealing, or inferior to others (Criterion 6). They are unusually reluctant to take personal risks or to engage in any new activities because these may prove embarrassing (Criterion 7). They are prone to exaggerate the potential dangers of ordinary situations, and a restricted lifestyle may result from their need for certainty and security. Someone with this disorder may cancel a job interview for fear of being embarrassed by not dressing appropriately. Marginal somatic symptoms or other problems may become the reason for avoiding new activities. Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis Individuals with avoidant personality disorder often vigilantly appraise the movements and expressions of those with whom they come into contact. Their fearful and tense de? meanor may elicit ridicule and derision from others, which in turn confirms their self? doubts. These individuals are very anxious about the possibility that they will react to crit? icism with blushing or crying. The low self-esteem and hypersensitivity to rejection are associated with restricted interpersonal contacts. These individuals may become relatively isolated and usually do not have a large social support network that can help them weather crises. They desire affection and acceptance and may fantasize about idealized relation? ships with others. The avoidant behaviors can also adversely affect occupational function? ing because these individuals try to avoid the types of social situations that may be important for meeting the basic demands of the job or for advancement. Other disorders that are commonly diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder in? clude depressive, bipolar, and anxiety disorders, especially social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Avoidant personality disorder is often diagnosed with dependent personality disorder, because individuals with avoidant personality disorder become very attached to and dependent on those few other people with whom they are friends. Avoidant per? sonality disorder also tends to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and with the Cluster A personality disorders. Prevalence Data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Condi? tions suggest a prevalence of about 2. Development and Course the avoidant behavior often starts in infancy or childhood with shyness, isolation, and fear of strangers and new situations. Although shyness in childhood is a common precur? sor of avoidant personality disorder, in most individuals it tends to gradually dissipate as they get older. In contrast, individuals who go on to develop avoidant personality disor? der may become increasingly shy and avoidant during adolescence and early adulthood, when social relationships with new people become especially important. There is some evidence that in adults, avoidant personality disorder tends to become less evident or to remit with age. This diagnosis should be used with great caution in children and adoles? cents, for whom shy and avoidant behavior may be developmentally appropriate. Culture-R elated Diagnostic issues There may be variation in the degree to which different cultural and ethnic groups regard diffidence and avoidance as appropriate. Moreover, avoidant behavior may be the result of problems in acculturation following immigration. G ender-Related Diagnostic Issues Avoidant personality disorder appears to be equally frequent in males and females. There appears to be a great deal of overlap between avoidant person? ality disorder and social anxiety disorder (social phobia), so much so that they may be alternative conceptualizations of the same or similar conditions. Avoidance also character? izes both avoidant personality disorder and agoraphobia, and they often co-occur. Other personality disorders may be confused with avoidant personality disorder because they have certain features in com? mon.

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